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Flashcards in BRAIN ANATOMY Deck (17):
1

Major brain divisions

-hind brain(innate functions)
-pons, medulla oblongata and cerebellum
- mid brain (language)
-forebrain
-hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus , amygdala
-frontal, parietal, occipital , temporal

2

Lobes of the brain

Primary motor cortex-voluntary movement

frontal lobe

Broca's area - speech formation

Primary auditory cortex- surrounded by a higher-order auditory cortex (hearing)

Temporal lobe

Brainstem

Spinal-cord

Cerebellum-motor control

Primary visual cortex-surrounded by a high audit visual cortex (sight)

Occipital lobe

Wernickies area (speech understanding)

Parietal lobe

somatic sensory cortex-body sensations

3

Central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord

The brain is composed of the forebrain [(thalamus and hypothalamus)(cerebrum-cerebral cortex, limbus system, corpus collosum)],

midbrain,

hindbrain(cerebellum, pons, medulla)
-ridiculous formation begins at the level of the Medulla and runs up through the midbrain to the forebrain)

4

Peripheral nervous system

Somatic system-voluntary muscle activation
Autonomic system -control smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands, basically involuntary

Sympathetic-generally activates
Parasympathetic-generally inhibits

5

Hind brain-cerebellum

-The cerebellum or little brain, resembles the cerebral cortex
-importance of proper motor function, balance, coordination (smooth out movements so little thinking is required)
-damage to this region can result in head tilt, balance problems, loss of smooth compensatory Eye movements and can be life-threatening
-works independently and unconsciously

6

Hind brain-reticular formation

-The reticular formation is located with in the mid and hind brain
-it's a let's higher regions of incoming information acting as a gateway
-ascending pathway alert higher regions of incoming information
-descending pathways block/allow incoming messages
-evolve with attention, sleep, consciousness
-damage can cause a coma

7

Hindbrain- brain stem

-The brainstem comprises the Medulla onongata and pons
-the medulla is responsible for vital reflex/survival functions: separation, swelling, vomiting, heart rate, salivation, coughing
-Service is the gateway for facial sensory and motor nerve tracks
-PONS
sends info to/from higher/lower regions of the nervous system and respiration

8

The mid brain

-The midbrain is located towards the centre of the brain
-made up of several structures (tectum , tegmentum, substantia nigra)
-there are two swellings on each side of the Tectum
-superior colliculus (important for visual processing)
-inferior colliculus ( import for auditory processing)

9

forebrain - thalamus

-inner chamber
-receives afferent inputs from peripheral nervous system
-as a relay centre
-send most sensory information to the cerebral cortex
-Visual, somatosensory, Gustation, literary
-except sense of olfactory (smell)

10

For brain-hypothalamus

-located under the thalamus
FUNCTIONS
-temperature regulation, BP, blood glucose levels and reward
-4 Fs= fighting fleeing feeding fornicating
- involved with horemone regulation in conjunction with the Pituitary gland

11

For brain-amygdala

-almond
-generalised "relevance detector" of biological stimuli
-paired association between emotion and objects
-processes fear responses, facial emotions, responds to fearful faces
-precious emotions such as fear, disgust, positive emotions

12

Forebrain- hippocampus

- 'seahorse'
-important for consolidation short-term memorys into long-term memories
-declarative and spatial memory
- has connections with the Cerebral cortex
-damage to this region can result in very severe memory impairment

13

Frontal lobes

-contains a primary motor cortex
-important for executive functions (complex thinking functions)
-planning, maintaining attention, inhibition, decision-making
-involved with guiding socially appropriate behaviour
-each hemisphere controls the contralateral opposite side of the body
Left controls right vice versa

14

Palatial lobes

-contains a primary somatosensory cortex (touch)
-information is received from the contralateral side of the body
-Information from the left side is sent to the right hemisphere
-involved with visual spatial processing
-damage to the right Who is your load can result in hemineglect

15

Language centres

-Wernickes area is primarily involves speech comprehension (temporal lobes )
-brocas sareas is primarily involves speech production (frontal lobes)
-damage to either region will result in primary and secondary deficits in both speech production and comprehension

16

Temporal lobes

- The temple is contained a primary auditory cortex(hearing)
-important for memory function
-the templates specialist processing visual information
-faces objects movement
DAMAGE
-kluver-bucysyndrome
-prosopagnosia: can't recognise faces you once knew

17

Occipital lobes

-primary visual cortex (vision)
-secondary areas within the lobes produce different types of visual information: colours, forms, motion
-damage to the visual areas can result in: akinetopsia (can't see movement), achromatopsia(can't see colour) and visual agnosia (can't use vision to determine an object)