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Flashcards in motor anatomy Deck (59):
1

from what areas of the brain does the corticospinal tract arise?

areas 4, 6, 312

2

as they leave the cortex, corticospinal fibers are

the corona radiata

3

through what do corticospinal fibers trival in the diencephalon?

the internal capsule

4

in the midbrain, cortico spinal fibers become

the cerebral peduncles

5

what is the the pyramidal decussation?

where 90% of corticospinal fibers split, at the junction of the spinal cortd brainstem.

6

After the pyramidal decussation, the crossed corticospinal tract goes to the ----- and the uncrossed fibers go to the ----

dorsolateral white matter, anterior corticospinal tract.

7

what other pathway subserves motor control through its connections in the brainstem?

corticobulbar tract

8

in the internal capsule, what is the somatotopic organanization?

Fibers controling upper body are found anteriorly, axons that influence the lower body are found post

9

How does the map of the internal capsule change in the cerebral peduncle?

upper body is represented medially and lower body is represented laterally

10

what areas of the cortex project to the red nucleus?

motor, premotor,

11

where do axons leaving the red nucleus, destined for the spinals cord go?

the cross in the ventral tegmental decussation and travel in the dorsolateral funiculus

12

what is a disynaptic connection from the motor cortex to the spinal motorneurons?

the rubrospinal tract

13

where does the tectospinal tract arise from?

the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus

14

Where does the superior colliculus project?

to the cervical spinal cord only

15

What kind of information do reticulospinal efferents carry?

vestibular info

16

What descending noradrenergic projection controls background excitability in MN?

Projections from the locus coeruleus

17

What descending projection from the brainstem is serotonergic?

caudal raphe nuclei.

18

what is the effect of descending connections from the raphe?

inhibitory; prevent hyper activity

19

This fiber tract has a role in maintenance of balance, has bilateral projections in the cord, runs throughout the SC, and effects A and G EXT and FLEX

LVST

20

This tract is for coordinated eye and head movements, projects contralaterally through only neck levels in the cord, and only influences neck muscles

tectospinal

21

Where does MVST project and what does it do?

Bilateral, cervical, Alpha neck MN, maintains head stability

22

where does reticulospinal project?

bilaterally to a and g flex and ext at all sc levels

23

coeruleospinal pathway is---,raphe-spinal is -----

ipsi, bilateral

24

latin name for anterior lobe of the cerebellum

paleocerebellum

25

the nodulus and flocculus, also called---- are separated from the rest of the cerebellum by the----

vestibulocerebellum; posterolateral fissure

26

what structure of the cerebellum forms the roof of the 4th ventricle?

nodulus

27

Input to the cerebellum chiefly goes to ----, which send info to----- in the ---- layer.

granule cells, PC, Molecular layer

28

information going out of the cerebellum travels in which peduncle?

superior

29

info going into the cerebellum goes by way of what?

middle (brachium pontis) inf (corp restiform)

30

the restiform body of the inferior peduncle carries what fibers?

Olive, dorsal spinocerebellar tract and medullary reticular formation

31

the juxtarestiform body of the inferior peduncle carries what?

vestibular info, also efferents

32

In what peduncle do pontine fibers to the cb travel in?

middle cerebellar peduncle

33

where do axons in the superior cerebellar peduncle go?

contralateral red nucleus or thalamus

34

the magnocellular division of the red nucleus receives what?

interpositus, mostly

35

the parvocellular red receives what?

dentate

36

what two tracts are near the superior cerebellar peduncl?

the uncinate fasiculus and spinocerebellar tract

37

the lentiform nucleus is made out of what structures?

putamen and gp

38

the neostriatum is what?

caudate and putamen

39

what separates the neostriatum?

the internal capsule

40

what structure forms the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle?

the caudate

41

what is the ventral striatum?

is rostr and vent to the ant comm, consists of the NAmb, Striatum and parts of the olfactory tubercle

42

what fiber structure separates the gp and the putamen?

external meduliary lamina

43

what separates the thalamus from th lenticular nucleus?

internal capsule

44

what is special about the substantia nigra pars compacta?

hs large cells that produce dA

45

what NT does the pars reticulata produce?

GABA

46

In the BG, what region is mostly motor?

Most of the Putamen

47

what kind of area occupies most of the caudate

Association

48

where is the limbic portion of the bg?

Ventral,

49

Major inputs to the striatum are from

the corex and the IL thalamic nuclei

50

efferents from the striatum include

MSN expressing substance-P and GABA project to the gp internal segment (direct) and MSN expressing enkephalin and gaba to gp ext.

51

Describe the indirect path

From the GP ext segment, to the sTN, to the GP internal segment

52

where does the gp internal segment project to?

VA, VL thalamus via lenticular fasciculus and the ansa lenticularis (the thalamic fasciculus)

53

where does the substantia nigra pars compacta project?

the striatum and ventral striatum (DA)

54

what are the motor nuclei of the eye muscles?

abducens, trochlear, and occulomotor

55

the pathway the carries the vestibuloocular reflex goes from the semicirc, vestibular and then to the motor nuclei by two pathways:

mediallongitudinal fasiculus, or by way of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. also, to the flocculus.

56

where does the command for saccadic eye movements originate?

FEF, sEF, intraparietal area of CCX.

57

Signals for saccades are ultimately carried to the --- and the ---- to get to the remotor burst neurons.

Superior colliculus, caudate, and to vermis via the nrtp.

58

for saccad, horizonal movements are --- and veritical movements

pontine;midbrain reticular formations (premotor burst neurons)

59

describe the pathfor smooth pursuit detection

Mt and Mst send signal to dl ponine, to flocculus and posterior veermis. then to mn via vestibular and prepositus hypoglossi. Also, fastigial to mn