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Flashcards in Muscles, Unit 3 Deck (69):
1

what distinguishes nicotinic and muscarinic receptors?

Where they are localized; the parasymp has musc, the nmj has nic

2

what is the physiology of an NMJ good for?

High gain system; contracts reliably; one nt, shape of synapse

3

what is the mechanism of action of curare and botulinum toxin

block ach release

4

what do glycogen depletion experiments show?

that muscle fibers innervated by the same MN are scattered uniformly through a muscle, not clustered

5

what are characteristics of fast fatiguing muscle fibers?

white, few capillaries, little myoglobing, but are supplied with glycolytic enzyemes

6

what is the histochemical profile of a red muscle fiber?

myoglobin etc, cannot metabolise, resist fatigue

7

which type of muscle fiber shows more variety in fatigue indexes?

White fibers

8

for what type of muscle is rheobase the smallest?

for s-type (red)

9

what is type-grouping

the clumping of type of fiber innervated by a mn after cutting and reinervatting

10

evidence that the mn specifies the type of muscle fiber?

after transection, type grouping occurs, and you restore the properties to the muscle fiber that it had earilier; more heterogeneous

11

evidence muscle can influence the mn

if a transected mn is redirected to a muscle that has no vacant end plates, mn will remain undiff, f forced to connect to s type muscle will not change muscle, mn properties change

12

how does exercise increase muscle size?

hypertrophy; increase in muscle size. hyperplasia does not occur

13

during training, how is efficiency improed?

first sign is how quickly a pluse of ach can be delivered (e stem can produce up to 30% greater muscle tension)

14

how does exercise effect mn types? fiber types?

mn type does not change, but proportion of muscle fiber type can

15

what is the arrangement/function of muscle spindles?

lie in parallel with extrafusal muscle fibers, stretch when muscle stretches

16

nuclear and afferent charicteristics of bag1.intrafusal fiber

nuclei are clustered in center, innervated by !A (large) fibers, which terminate near center.

17

bag2 and nuclear chain properties

nuclei scattered throughout, !a and II afferents, terminations more distally

18

What do Bag1 fibers respond best to, why?

during stretch movement, sensor is at elastic middle, affects IA (velocity detectors)

19

What do Bag2 fibers respond best, why

the length of muscle stretch, will affect group II fibers. (length detectors)

20

when a muscle is released from stretch, primary afferents will be-----, secondary afferents willl-----

be inhibited, ;fire less

21

what unwanted situation occurs when muscle shortening happens, and is prevented by contraction of he intrafusal muscle fibers

unloading

22

why does.a cut muscle have less activity in the spindle afferents?

you have removed motor drive, B mn come from sc ventral horm

23

What class of mn innervate each type of intrafusal fiber?

gammaD - Bag1 and gammaS -bag2 and chain.

24

Gogli tendons (Ib) do this?

are stimulated whe when a tendon stretch (its muscle contracts)-- prevents antagonist from contracting.--smooth, not protection

25

what type of movement recruits a Gamma d/gammaS mn?

fast and big/slow

26

what does stimulation of free nerve endings in muscle cause?

exercise pressor responses

27

what is wrong with the gamma loop hypothesis

too fast for feedback? no accounting for load?

28

What is servo length hypothesis?

do not depend on load, intrafusal fibers receive feedback from muscle to maintain at optimal length

29

What does an Ib afferent respond to?

muscle contraction (ie tendon stretch)

30

why are Ib inhibitory interneurons called non-reciproal?

because they don't affect the antagonist muscle

31

Type III (Agamma) nerve endings are important for what?

physiological response to exercise; metabolites from muscle contraction trigger, bring more o2 and nutrients to a muscle

32

why are goldi tendon organs slow to resopond to stretch?

change in length occurs mostly in the extrafusal fibers

33

muscle spindle lies in ---- with respect to muscle fibers, golgi tendon is in -----

parallel,(fire with muscle stretch), series fire with muscle contraction)

34

what happens during a contraction if the ventral root is cut?

this means no gamma mn firing-- so primary and secondary afferents will stop firing during muscle contraction

35

Describe the sc connections of Ia afferents:

heavily to to lamina IX, (terminate on MN,) agonist and inhibiotyr interneuron ie antagonist, eg myostatic reflex, passive stretch due to load

36

secondary afferents make this type of sc connection

barely any IX connections, intermediate grey

37

where do group Ib afferents connect in the sc?

intermediate gray only

38

define myotatic reflex?

contraction of a stretched muscle by a monosynaptic proprioceptive input ot a alpha motoneuron innervating the muscle being stretched (holding a glass that's being filled)

39

reciprical inhibition?

Ia inhibitory interneurons responsible for this, turn on agonist and turn off antagonist. (reflex hammer)

40

role of renshaw cells?

recurrent inhibition of mn that excited them; negative feed back to stablize contractions.

41

what is the only type of interneuron know to receive renshaw inhibition?

type 1a inhibitory interneuron, may serve to regulate strength of receprocal inhibition to antagonist ;mn

42

what give input to a renshaw cell?

an alpha mn, or descending input

43

to make a more powerful reflex, Ia inputs can do what?

produce inhibition of mn of antagonists, this is disynaptic

44

many pathways provide inputs to motoneurons also send signals to Ia inhibitor interneurons. this is an example of

conserfation within the central neural circuitry

45

Group Ib fibers make this kind of inhibition

no reciprocal; inhibition of the muscle being stretched

46

what is antidromic response?

stimulating at axon, therfore anti to the direction, will pass collision test (ie cancel out)

47

what is orthodromic response?

stimulating across a synapse; stimulating at soma, recording across synapse at soma, will fail collision test

48

propriospinal neurons connect segments of the sc to integrate movement. medially ------ range axons supply----- muscles, and ----- range axons supply ---- muscles.

long, axial; short; distal

49

are supraspinal structures necessary to generate locomotion?

no, in a spinalized cat, still have basic pattern--alternation of flexors and extensors;stimulating afferents by putting on a treadmil

50

how do supraspinal structures contribute to locomotion?

MLR (mesencephalic locomotor region) initiates and controls speed

51

does the MLR provide input directly to the SC?

NO! reticular formation, inputs integrated with other inputs from vestibular, cerebellar, cortical etc

52

what are the inputs to the MLR?

bg, limbic system, lateral hypothalamus, inhibition from STN

53

what happens when you stimulate MLR?

find responsive neurons in lamina VIX of the spinal cord (ventral horn)

54

are peripheral inputs needed for walking? how do you know?

no, cutting the DR does not abolish walking

55

afferent feed back is important for what in walking?

reinforcing the step cycle, and in posture

56

what is odd about the locomotor reflex pathway?

the convergent input of extensor muscle Ia, II and Ib spindle afferents during stance do not shut off extensor, instead, the allow extensor to stay active.

57

how could cutaneous stimulation be important in gait?

eg the stumble response, a prolonged swing face stimulated by sensation on the dorseum of the foot

58

what role do Ia inhibitory interneurons play in walking?

they ensure that flexors and extensors are not active at the same time

59

Features of LVST; Arises-, descends- crossed or not? role in movement?

LVN, terminates in VIII and VII travels in ventrolateral funiculus, effects neck movements may be direct, indirect to other,ipsi

60

MVST: how does this differ from LVST?

medial longitudinal fasciculus, and travels bilaterally, mainly in cervical sc, neck.

61

how does the LVST influence limbs on the opposite side?

through commisural internuerons

62

what is LVST good for?

can influence alpha and gamma mn on both sides, maintain posture when falling

63

when is LVST most likely to be activated, why?

for ear-down movement, because they receive convergent otolith and canal signals that are activated by this-- think quadrupeds!

64

what part of the reticular formation sends fibers to the spinal cord, where?

Gigantocellular- medial, descending, mainly indirec, some direct a and g activation

65

where do medullary reticulospinal axons go?

lateral funiculus

66

where do pontine reticulopsinal axons go?

ventral funiculus

67

descending monoaminergic pathways originate from the---- with serotonin and ----- with noradrenergic

meullary raphe, locus coeruleus

68

evoloution of rubrospinal tract:

most important in rats, in cats activates flexors and inhibits extensors, in primates ends at cervical

69

two cortical spinal pathways:

dirct-ducusssates at pyramid-direct contact w mn, indirect goes to reticular formation,