Flashcards in Motor Learning and Coaching Deck (31):
- Gross movements are those that involve large muscle coordinaton. Running, jumping, and sliding are examples. These movements can be reinforced through fitness training. Transfer of learning among activities with common gross movements is greater due to the similarities between them.
- Fine movements involve precise control of small muscles. Tasks such as writing or piano playing are examples. While most tasks fall on the gross motor end of the continuum, finger dexterity for controlling a ball arguably requires some level of fine, specific coordinations.
- Open motor skill occurs when a skill is performed in an unstable or unpredictable environment.
- Closed Motor Skill occurs when a skill is performed in a stable or predictable environment.
- A skill that has a clearly defined beginning and end.
- Eg. Golf Swing
- A skill that is almost impossible to see a beginning or end.
- Eg. Running
- A skill with several components
- Eg. A cricket bowl with a run up, delivery action and follow through.
Main purpose of feedback:
- Reinforce Positives
- Modify behaviour or technique
Types of Feedback
- Intrinsic: Person's own sensory system
- Extrinsic: Someone or something external to the person.
Purpose of Feedback
- Correct errors
Feedback received after the action, intended to correct errors. Usually given by coach.
Feedback given during performance, usually given by coach or teammates.
Cues that are visible by the athlete, can react to them.
Cues which are spoken or come from sound, athlete can alter position or attention depending on where the sound is from.
Cues which are from within, when you kick a ball and you feel that you've connected well with it. Appeals to the senses.
Phases of Information Processing
- Identification of stimuli/input
- Response identification/decision making
Senses pick up environmental information and cues such as the position of the opponent and the crowd, which is temporarily stored in the short-term memory.
Response identification/decision making
Reacting to the input given and making a decision on what to do in return, for instance deciding to next play a drop shot in tennis when you've seen your opponent is sat deep.
The movement response program selected is automatically carried out by the muscular system.
- Performance of the stroke is evaluated. Was it successful? Did the opponent return the shot?
- The experience is them returned to the long-term memory.
Factors that affect motor learning:
- Observe and interpret info
- Make decisions on what has to be done.
- Decide on a plan of action and generate movement.
- Evaluate performance
- Age and maturity
- Physiological characteristics
- Psychological characteristics
- Sociological characteristics
- Task complexity
- Task organisation
- Task classification
- Teaching style
- Method of Presentation
- Forms of guidance
- Type of instruction and practice
Factors affecting skill level:
- Energy expenditure
- Practice time
- Determines speed in which motor skills are acquired
- More time, less stress and fewer responsibilities mean greater potential time to develop.
- Natural decline of body slows down movements
- Beginners fatigued more quickly, make excessive movements.
- More practice time helps eliminate errors.
- Expose performer to varied stimulus
- With good feedback, develop faster.
- Elite athletes more likely to be motivated to develop.
- More skilled performers can filter out irrelevant information.
- Each athlete reacts differently to crowd, coach must facilitate for everyone.
- Streamline learning process
- Need to be measurable, realistic and achievable
- Direct behaviour in a desired direction.
- Visual attention needs only to be focused on the relevant cues.
- Beginners focus on basic skill movement, which doesn't allow them to view the rest of the game.
- Increased knowledge gives experts more alternatives to respond to a given stimuli
- Elite athletes have more experiences stored in long-term memory.