Exercise Physiology - Adaptations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exercise Physiology - Adaptations Deck (14):

Acute Responses to Exercise:

- Heart Rate
- Stroke Volume
- Blood Pressure
- Cardiac Output
- Tidal Volume
- Respiratory Rate
- Max O2 uptake
- Arteriovenous oxygen difference
- Blood redistribution


Chronic adaptations to training:

- Cardiac Output
- Heart rate
- Blood pressure
- Blood volume/haemoglobin levels
- Stroke volume
- Capillarisation
- O2 Exchange
- Muscle hypertrophy and increased flexibility
- Increased aerobic and anaerobic capacity


Heart Rate - Acute

- Increased demand for fuels and oxygen
- Heart pumps faster to remove waste.
- Increased intensity = increased heart rate, directly proportional.
- Athletes who train endurance will find that they return to resting heart rate quickly.


Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output - Acute

- Stroke volume is how much blood is transported per beat.
- Heart beats more forcefully when exercising, increased stroke volume.
- Cardiac output increases when exercising.


Blood Pressure - Acute

- Systolic (output) blood pressure increases sharply during exercise due to increased output
- Diastolic pressure stays the same


Blood Redistribution - Acute

- Blood redistributes from organs to muscles depending on the exercise.
- Less blood flow to the digestive system.


Gas Exchange - Acute

- As we begin to exercise, there is an increase of oxygen into the pulmonary capillaries.
- Exercising muscles and cells will produce carbon dioxide in greater quantities.


Oxygen Uptake:

- Oxygen consumption rises exponentially during the first few minutes of exercise.
- VO2 Max = Point in which increases in intensity will not result in an increase in oxygen consumption.


Arteriovenous oxygen difference - Acute

- Indication of the difference in oxygen concentration between arterial and venous blood.
- At rest AVO2 diff = 5ml of Oxygen per 100ml of blood
- With increased intensity, comes increased AVO2 diff.


Heart Rate, Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output - Chronic

- Resting and submaximal heart rates will decrease
- This is a result of the cardiac output and stroke volume increasing.
- The heart requires less pumps per minute to distribute the same amount of blood.


Blood Pressure - Chronic

- Aerobic training results in lower systolic and diastolic pressure
- Greatest changes occur in systolic pressure.


Cardiac Hypertrophy - Chronic

- Endurance training results in increased ventricular size
- Allows for greater amount of blood to be pumped into and out of the ventricles resulting in increased cardiac output.
- Size of heart increase = cardiac hypertrophy


Anaerobic Training Adaptations at muscular level - Chronic

- Increased fast-twitch muscle fibre size
- Increased energy substrate levels in muscle
- Increased ATP-CP splitting and resynthesis of enzymes
- Increased glycolytic capacity
- Increased ventricle thickness
- Increased contractile proteins in muscles
- Increased myosin ATPase
- Increased muscle buffering capacity
- Muscle hyperplasia


Aerobic training adaptation at muscular level - Chronic

- Increased mitochondria density and number
- Increased myoglobin stores
- Increased oxidative capacity via increased oxidative enzyme
- Increased capillary density
- Increased use of fat during submaximal exercise
- Increased stores and use of intramuscular triglycerides
- Increased muscle glycogen synthase and storage
- Oxygen extraction