Movement Disorders Flashcards Preview

Neurology - Anatomy and Physiology > Movement Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Movement Disorders Deck (21):
1

What is athetosis?

Slow, writing, snake-like movements, esp in fingers

2

What lesion is athetosis associated with?

Basal ganglia, eg Huntington's

3

What is chorea?

Sudden, jerky, purposeless
movements

4

What lesion is chorea associated with?

Basal ganglia, eg Huntington's

5

What is dystonia?

Sustained, involuntary muscle
contractions

6

What is essential tremor?

High-frequency tremor with
sustained posture (e.g.,
outstretched arms), worsened
with movement or when
anxious

7

What is the treatment for essential tremor?

B-blockers or primidone.

8

What is hemiballismus?

Sudden, wild flailing of 1 arm
+/− ipsilateral leg

9

What is the lesion associated with hemiballismus?

Contralateral subthalamic
nucleus (e.g., lacunar stroke)

10

What is intention tremor?

Slow, zig-zag movement when pointing/extending toward a target

11

What is the lesion associated with intention tremor?

cerebellar dysfunction

12

What is myoclonus?

Sudden, brief, uncontrolled muscle contraction.

13

What is resting tremor?

Uncontrolled movement of distal appendages, most noticeable in hands. Tremor alleviated by intentional movement.

14

What is resting tremor classic in?

Parkinson's disease -"pill rolling"

15

What structure is compromised in Parkinson's disease?

Dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta. Appear depigmented!

16

What are Lewy bodies of Parkinson's composed of?

alpha synuclein - intracellular eosinophilic inclusions.

17

What is the genetic abnormalities in Huntington's?

Autosomal dominant trinucleotide repeat disorder (CAG) on Chromosome 4.

18

What are the sx of huntingon's?

Choreiform movements. Aggression, depression, dementia. Manifest between ages 20-50.

19

What are the neurotransmitter abnormalities in huntingon's?

Incr dopamine.
Decr GABA
Decr Ach

20

What causes neuronal death in huntington's?

NMDA-R binding and glutamate toxicity.

21

What are the MRI findings of Huntington's?

Atrophy of caudate nucleui w/ ex vacuo dilation of frontal horns.