Considers the arrangement of the phenomena being Studied across the surface of the earth. Important considerations of this approach include location, distance, direction, orientation, pattern, and interconnection.
The study of spatial characteristics of various elements of the physical environment.
The study of the spatial characteristics of humans and human activities.
The precise spot where something is according to some system, typically found using longitude and latitude.
The distance north and south of the equator.
An imaginary line that circles the globe exactly halfway between the North and South Poles.
The distance east or west of the prime meridian
An imaginary line that runs from pole to pole through Greenwich, England.
Roughly follows the prime meridian but makes deviations to accommodate international boundaries.
International Date Line
A description of where something is in relation to other things.
How well two locations are tied together by roads or other links.
How quickly and easily people in one location can interact with people in another location.
Abandoned settelments of the western United States. Their good relative locations lost the advantages that they once had, however, their absolute locations remain the same.
Refers to the specific human and physical characteristics of a location.
A group of places in the same area that share a characteristic.
Characteristics at the immidate location (soil type, climate, labor force, human structures, etc…)
The location of a place relative to its surroundings and other places.
How humans percive an area based on their personal belifes and emotional connection.
Sense of Place
Place names– provides insights into the physical geography, the history, or the culture of the location
The measurement of how far or near things are to one another.
The degree of nearness.
The contact, movement, and flow of things between locations. Connections may be physical (roads) or through information (radios and Internet).
When things are farther apart, they tend to be less well connected.
Friction of Distance
The idea that when things are farther apart, they tend to be less well connected.
Friction of Distance
The number of something in a specivically defined area (the number of people per square mile).
The way a phenomenon is spread out over an area.
Matching patterns of distribution that indicates two or more phenomena may be related, or associated with one another.
The connection and exchange between humans and the natural world.
How humans adapt to the environment.
The belief that landforms and the climate are the most powerful forces shaping human behavior.
A view that acknowledges limits on the effects of the natural environment and focuses more in the role that human culture plays.
The task of defining and describing landscapes.
The act of physically visiting a location, place, or reigeon and recording, firsthand, information there.
All the information that can be tied to a specific location.
Professional images captured from planes within the atmosphere.
The physical artifacts that humans have created and that form part of the landscape (buildings, roads, signs, fences, etc…).
Anything built by humans.
The general arrangements of things being studied.
The repeted sequence of events that create patterns.
The ratio is the between the size of things in the real world and the size of those same things on a map.
The way a map communicates the ratio of its size to the size of what it represents.
Sometimes refered to as relative scale and refers to the amount of territory that the map represents.
Sometimes refered to as geographical scale and refers to the amount of territory that the map represents.
Designed for people to refer to for general information about places.
Show and label human-created boundaries and designations, such as counties, states, cities, and capitals.
Show and label natural features such as mountains, rivers, and deserts.
Show and label highways,streets, and alleys.
Show and label property lines and details of land ownership.
Illustrations used in books and advertisements to show specific locations mentioned in the text.
Show spatial aspects of information or of a phenomenon.
Uses various colors, shades of one color, or paterns to show the location and distribution of spatial data.
Used to show the specific location and distribution of something across the territory of a map. Each dot represents a specific quantity.
Dot Distribution Maps
Uses symbols of different sizes to indicate different amounts of something. Larger sizes indicate a larger quantity while smaller sized indicate a smaler quality.
Graduated Symbol Maps
Uses lines that connect points of equal value to depict variations in data across space
A type of isoline map – points of equal elevation are connected, creationg contours that depict surface features.
The sizes of countries (or states, counties, or another areal unit) are shown according to some specific statistic.
The process to showing a curved surface on a flat surcace.
Representations of reality or theories
Projection of a map of the world on to a cylinder in such a way that all the parallels of latitude have the same length as the equator, used especially for marine charts and certain climatological maps.
Mercator Map Projection
Map projection in which areas are shown in correct proportion at the expense of distorted shape, using a rectangular decimal grid to replace latitude and longitude. It was devised in 1973 to be a fairer representation of equatorial (i.e. mainly developing) countries, whose area is underrepresented by the usual projections such as Mercator’s.
A0 map projection in which an area of the earth is projected onto a cone whose vertex is usually above one of the poles, then unrolled onto a flat surface.
The Robinson projection is a map projection of a world map which shows the entire world at once. It was specifically created in an attempt to find a good compromise to the problem of readily showing the whole globe as a flat image.
United by physical, cultural, or economic traits.
Formal Regions/ Uniform Reigons/ Homogeneous Regions
Organized around a focal point and are defined by an activity that occus across the reigon.
Functional Regions/ Nodal Regions
The informal sense of place that people ascribe to them.
Perceptual Regions/ Vernacular Regions
The maps that people create in their minds based on their own experiences and knowledge.
Regions divided into smaller areas.
Data that is observed and recorded on on location, and the act of collecting it.
Information that is measured and recorded using numbers.
Information that is collected through interviews, documents, and visual observations.