Flashcards in MT2 Deck (39)
What is gender asymmetry? (2)
Men's roles more important
Men have more power
What are 2 key criticisms about Rosaldo's study on Domestic/Public split worlds?
- thought split applied to all cultures
- didn't look historically for explanation, only present time
What are 3 traits that distinguish the public world from domestic world?
- location - beyond home/home
- paid - yes/no
- gendered - masc/fem
What are 2 trends revolving men/women child care and household labor in Canada?
- men contribute more than before (in child care and hh labor)
- women also contributing more at a time where they are working outside more as well
Roles converging (haven't fully converged)
Men and women high potentials are ________ hedgers and climbers. Women ________ benefit from being proactive compared to men.
Canada ____ many other countries in terms of women % in parliament. Canada has gotten _____ in the past few years.
What are gender stereotypes, proscriptions and prescriptions?
Society wide beliefs of how a man/women should behave (prescriptions) or shouldn't behave (proscriptions)
What is the difference between agentic and communal prescriptions? What happens when these are violated?
Agentic (respected traits) - strong leader, assertive
Communal (nice traits) - caring, submissive, selfless
Violation results in punishment, devaluation, discrimination
What is the double bind for women? What effect does this create?
Women need to possess agentic traits to fulfill agentic careers. However, women with agentic traits are perceived to lack communal traits and appear colder - aka backlash effect.
Why does backlash effect occur?
Agentic women increase feelings of moral outrage - they are doing something outside of communal prescriptions. Causes doubt and perception of wrong behavior
Why is the hegemonic male not a real representation of what men want to be? (3)
Few men can achieve traits of hegemonic male
Few men want to achieve traits
Men feel pressured to achieve as the idea is pervasive in society - proving to be a man versus just being a man
How does Barbie contribute to the North American embodiment of emphasized feminism?(3)
Tyranny of slenderness - Thinness
Tyranny of Appearance
Consumerism - buy things to look good
What is the difference between categorical and dimensional traits?
Categorical - no overlap between males and females
Dimensional - overlap
Why would sexes be similar? (4)
NS predicts changes in all members of population
SS predicts relative differences between sexes
Men have been active caregivers, reducing sex differences predicted by SS
Why do categorical gender differences persist?(2) What is a solution proposed by Michael Kimmel?
Humans like to categorize thoughts - easier
Marketers/companies benefit from differences - can market products easier
Solution is to think about traits as being shared (similarities hypothesis) vs categorical (differences hypothesis)
Where did the idea of hegmonic masculinity come from? (2)
Christianity associated feminine traits as subordinate
Industrial revolution - men would work in the public domain and be more valuable (breadwinners) whereas women stayed home (less valuable)
An experiment in 1980 by _______ and ______ tested for mathematical ________ in youths. This experiment was flawed because they did not control for _______
Ability - tests on achievements yield 50/50 results - ability different and could be caused by environmental factors
Environment outside classroom
What is the biological argument regarding men's enhanced spatial ability? Environmental argument?
Biological argues that men in past needed to navigate land for mates and thus needed better spatial ability. Studies in animals (cowbird) shows that females exhibit greater spatial ability than males. Furthermore, individuals with exposure to spatial tasks have larger hippocampi. This leads to the environmental argument that individuals (male or female) will have better spatial ability if they have a history of exposure to spatial tasks
Okimoto & Brescoll performed an experiment that asked what participants thought about an agentic female politician. What did voters think was wrong with the agentic female? (2)
- possessed agentic traits
- thus lacked communal traits - violates societal prescription to be communal
In Asante Market Women:
1) how did traders relate to North American communal stereotype?
2) how does matrilineal system and polygyny shape women participation in the market ?
3) how does the concept of breadwinner apply to Asante traders?
4) how would you describe the role of women as traders (public) and wives (domestic)
1) opposite, women were agentic - powerful and respected
2) women must participate in market to make money. Polygynous husbands don't support wives. Matrilineal lineage means wealth of a man passed to sister
3) women are breadwinners
4) public - agentic, powerful
domestic - submissive, communal according to men
What are the three components of the motherhood stereotype?
- want to have children, regardless of circumstances
- raise children out of love (innate) instead of a learned discipline
- mothering is an individual engagement, rather than social
What are the five components of intensive mothering?
essentialism - the best suited parent to take care of child
fulfillment - purpose comes from being child
stimulation - child must always be stimulated
challenging - parenting is most difficult job
child-centred - child's needs first and foremost
France is a country that doesn't have the ideals of intensive mothering. Their birth rate is ____ in Europe at _____.
What is shared mothering? (3)
What is the decreasing order of appropriate mothers?
never married mothers
What are the 2 components of the motherhood penalty? (2) Where does the tension of motherhood penalty come from?
hiring and wages - viewed less competent and devoted
tension between ideal mother and ideal worker
ideal mother is intensive mother, subordinates all else for child
Wage gap - drop in income following child birth
40/30/7/7/6/5/4 % drop
What is the opt-out revolution?
Thought that women chose to leave workforce, instead of being shut out by motherhood penalty
What is the hierarchy of women's pay?
single childless woman
married woman with child
single woman with child
What are the two fatherhood models in North America?
- father is breadwinner (dominant)
- father as active caretaker (emerging)