Flashcards in MT1 Deck (100)
Socially constructed interpretation of ones sex (differences)
Are gender differences innate?
No - gender differences based on sex differences but not natural
Define gender identity
An individuals subjective opinion of being masculine/feminine/ambivalent (self)
Define gender stereotype
Socially constructed notion of appropriate behaviors for each sex
Differentiate between gender ID and stereotype
ID - internal, self-belief
Stereotype - social construct
of appropriate behaviors/attitude for individual based on sex
Are gender stereotypes fixed?
Subject to change through time
Does the 2 sex/gender system work?
No - doesn't account for everyone
An individual who's gender identity doesn't match with their biological sex
Physical traits that differentiate males and females
What makes someone a male/female? (sex)
XX (f) and XY (m) chromosomes in general - idea is challenged though
Differentiate sex and gender
Sex is biologically defined;gender is socially constructed interpretation of males/females//masc/fem
How different are men and women? (hypothesis)
Similarities exceed differences between men and women
Explain and differentiate between the gender differences and similarities hypothesis
Differences explore differences among sexes
Similarities look for similarities
Similarities > Differences
Gender differences hypothesis leads to ________ trap
What is essentialism?
Belief that gender roles are innate - not social constructs
eg. anatomy is design
What are the 4 'biological' arguments used to exclude women from combat duty? (Peach-GCCP)
Male strength hypothesis
Male aggression hypothesis
Women's childbearing hypothesis
Male bonding hypothesis
What is the male strength hypothesis? What is its flaw/correction?
Men are inherently stronger than women - so only men should enter combat. Tells women that they can't fight based on gender difference instead of physical trait - should measure soldier capacity based on strength
What is the male aggression hypothesis? What is wrong with it?
Men are inherently more aggressive than women - based on incomplete studies of primates. Not proven - aggression can potentially be conditioned.
What is the female child bearing hypothesis? (2)
Pregnancy/motherhood debilitates combat effectiveness and logistics. Logistic issue addressed with planning. Women are natural caregivers - should be center of family. Not true - gender roles designate women to be caregivers, not biological factors
What is the male bonding hypothesis? Why is it flawed? (3)
Women deter male-male bonding. Not the case - this ignores bro-sis bonds, shared experiences, and strong leadership
What are 2 myths used to prevent women from entering active combat duty? Briefly describe them.
Male warrior - military is masculine - use male performance as benchmark - women out of place
Female protection - women need to be protected
Why is the idea of a female in war an issue? (Dichotomy - male warrior/female nurturer)
Masc/fem ideas socially constructed - society doesn't tolerate trait overlap
What are gender displays/codes?
Learned, constructed signals that are distinguished as feminine or masculine
What is the ritualization of subordination?
Women being portrayed as helpless, unaware, weak, positions where they cannot defend themselves (laying down) - sexualized
What are canting postures?
Bent (canted) postures - neck, hips, knee, hands - awkward, off balance positions - signal weakness
How do female athletes interact with gender codes?
Female athletes are symbols of power and success - yet they are portrayed (RoS, canting postures) as weak
What are gender codes/displays of masculinity?
Everything a woman is not - strong, aware, ready to act
How have gender displays of masculinity changed?
Inclusion of awkward, defenseless positions (fem) - balanced by presence of broad, definable muscles (masc) or the addition of women
Where do gender codes come from? What are John Berger's ideas?
Strong connection to early oil paintings - women something to look at