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ANTH331 - Sex and Gender > Final > Flashcards

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Define intersex

individual with biological sex outside realm of regular male/female classification due to variation in genes, hormones or anatomy


What 3 components make up the 3-part alignment?

Gonads (internal)
Genitalia (external)


What are the two main intersex categories? Define them in the framework of 3-part alignment

Gonadal Intersex
- XX, XY or other
- has both test/ovary tissue
- genitalia ambiguous, male or female
(AIS/CAH) - more common)
- external genitalia does not match chromosome/gonads (which are the same sex)


Define transsexual

person who's bio sex doesn't match gender identity


Define gender dysphoria. How is this different from body dysphoria

Gender dysphoria - dislike of current body because gender ID doesn't match bio body
Body dysphoria - dislike body because of certain trait


Define cisgender

individual who's bio sex matches gender id


What is the difference between cross-dressing and drag?

Cross-dressing - personification of opposite sex through dressing
Drag - performance related - dressing as opposite sex


What is the difference between transsexual/gender? (2 each)

Both indicate that biological sex does not match gender identity
Transsexual - seeks to change within 2 sex/gender framework, more likely to undergo transitional surgery
Transgender - identifies to gender that might not fall within 2 sex/gender framework, less likely to undergo transitional surgery


What is the difference between transpeople and intersex?

Intersex - anatomy not within 2 sex category, but identify with one specific gender
Transpeople - standard anatomy, but identify with different gender


2 Spirits - are examined through framework of BGWSS. Define how a woman-man and man-woman are defined by this

woman-man (opp for man-woman except sex-assignment)
biological sex - male
gender - 3rd gender woman-man
work - female work
sex reassignment - none
sexual orientation - not a lot of evidence, maybe more relationships with men


What are 3 reasons that influence women to become sworn virgins?

1 - more freedom
2 - not enough men in society (to work)
3 - avoid arranged marriage without blood feud


No country has achieved 100% gender equality as rated by gender gap index (GGI). What are the 4 categories of the GGI and which category is lacking the most?

Political empowerment @ 21%
Economic participation/opportunity
Health & survival


What is the correlation between the gender gap index and the global competitive index and gdp growth?

Positive correlation


What are 2 questions that examine the relationship between GGI and GCI/GDP? (2)

How well is human talent used?
Women make up 50% of population, how well is their talent used?


What are the two ideas discussed about the creation of gender inequality?

the state - federal/country policy supporting female subordination
economic participation/opportunity


What makes the Tuareg different than most pastoralists? What contribution do women make to diet, who owns livestock and family home?

Different because of descent system
Women contribute to diet because they own livestock
Women own livestock (consinaguine gifts) and home (dowry)


What do "children of the stomach" and "children of men" offer? (Tuareg)

stomach - matrilineal, more likely to take care of mother later in life
men - are thought to inherit fathers intelligence, partner with kins in business settings


What are two explanations of gender stratification in Canada regarding economic opps?
What proportion do women make up in workforce working at minimum wage?

Preferential treatment - women discriminated against
Motherhood penalty
Min wage ~70% women


How did Norway increase the proportion of women employed as directors?

Rigid enforcement
Trade minister set goal of 40% women representation, companies would face consequences like exchange delisting


What are 4 benefits that have arisen from greater women representation on company boards? How has decision making process changed?

Higher level of education
Higher level of preparedness
Higher quality decision making
Better financial performance
Decision making - men (1 contributor, micro perspective)
- women (widespread contribution, macro perspective)


What are 2 trends about how men are portrayed in magazine ads? 2 trends for women?

1. males still dominant to women but decreasing
2. males becoming sexualized - objects of desire - suggestive positions
3. females portrayed in more public roles
4. females increasing trend of ritualization of subordination


How are men and women (2) portrayed in music videos and games?

women - sexualized, fragile
men - hyper aggressive


What are some trends in US films regarding men(1) and women(2)? What about g-rated films(2)?

Men - hyper aggressive
Women - sex objects, underrepresented
G-rated - women twice as likely to be in relationship and be a parent


Harrison's 2003 studied the relationship between "ideal bodies" and the shows females watched. What were the 2 explanations that described this relationship?

Cultivation theory - seeing something repeatedly reinforces belief that it is correct
Mainstreaming - worldwide groups with divergent views converge to one "reality"


What is objectification and objectification theory?

objectification - turning a part of a person into an object
objectification theory - framework that explores negative effect of objectification (physical and psychological)


What is self objectification? What type of consequences accompany objectification(3)? How have men's ads changed to increase self objectification?

objectifying one self - becoming critical
positively correlated to depression, eating disorders and shameful feelings
men's ad changed focus from face to body


Describe the changes in market segmentation that has arisen from men's grooming products? How are the marketers utilizing strategies that have worked on women on men? (2) [BS]

Body as self paradigm - must look good to feel good. Ads serve as benchmark for male body, but unattainable
Segment market to make products gender exclusive


Explain the concept of misery is not miserly

Sad experiences carry over to influence economic decisions. Sad people are likely to pay more for their purchases


What is the major flaw of Dove's "real beauty" campaign?

Although the campaign highlighted that the perception of beauty if socially constructed, the focus on appearance is still front and centre


What are 6 concepts that can buffer the gender polarization effects in the media?

1. androgynous - males and females score high (31%)
2. gender similarities
3. natural selection predicts little differences between men/women
4. gender polarization doesn't exist in all socieities (constructed)
5. genders constructed
6. wean off body-as-self paradigm