Flashcards in MTT test #4 Deck (32)
Cutting fluid Regulations
Federal, state, and local regulations
Hazards of traditional cutting fluids
-Aerosols harm lungs and skin
-Disposal as waste pollute water and environment
Types of Cutting Fluids
-Emulsifiable (water-based) oils
-Chemical and semi-chemical fluids
Mineral Cutting Oils
-Excellent lubricating properties
-Poor cooling capability
-Tend to become rancid
-Increased cooling capacity
-No fire hazard
-Regular fluid maintenance to control rancidity
-Corrosion risk due to water presence
-Monitor and maintain water level
Acceptable Cutting Fluids for HSS and Carbide
Most cutting fluids, except gaseous fluids
Cutting fluid for Ceramic Tooling?
Safety Data Sheets
Choosing a Cutting Fluid
-Fluid selection factors
-Material being machined
-Refer to manufacturer guidelines
Application of Cutting Fluids
-Use to continuously flood work area
-Cool work area
-Carry away chips
-Clear cut area of removed material
-Eliminate environmental concerns
-No lubricating qualities
-May not adequately cool area between cutter and
-Blow chips away at high velocity
Chemical Cutting Fluids
-Dissipate heat rapidly
-Clean to use
-Residue easy to remove
-minimal lubricating qualities
-May cause skin irritation
Water-based cutting fluids for magnesium?
No, Burning magnesium reacts violently with water
Cutting Fluid Application for lathe operations
The nozzle is usually above the workpiece pointed downward at the tool.
Cutting Fluid Application for Internal lathe work
Two air nozzles one adjacent to the lathe and one under the cutting part.
Cutting Fluid Application for surface grinding operation.
Special wraparound nozzles are often used on surface
grinders to ensure complete flooding & cooling of the
The relative difficulty of a machining
operation with regard to tool life, surface finish, and
Principles of Metal Cutting
depth of cut
Tool rake style
Selecting Carbide Tools
Establish the Operating Conditions
Select the Cemented Carbide Grade
Select the Nose Radius
Select the Insert Shape
Select the Insert Size
Select the Tool Style
Are used for files & chisels, and to a limited extent for drilling/turning tools.
Used at higher speeds (100 fpm in mild steels) without losing hardness and has long working life.
Cemented carbides are the most widely used tool
materials in the machining industry.
types of tool ware
Cubic Boron Nitride Tools (CBN)
is next to diamond hardness & therefore can be used to machine plain carbon steels, alloy steels & gray cast irons
with hardnesses of 45 Rc & above.
Industrial diamonds are sometimes used to machine
extremely hard workpieces.
Carbide heat exchange
History of cutting tools
Carbon steel late 1800s
High speed steel
Ceramics cermets 1950s
Brittle & require machines and setups be rigid & free of vibration.