Multiple Sclerosis Flashcards Preview

724: Medical Lectures > Multiple Sclerosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Multiple Sclerosis Deck (60)
1

What part of the CNS does MS attack?

the myelin of the white matter

2

Is MS considered an upper or lower motor neuron lesion?

upper

3

MS is characterized by reactive gliosis, what 2 things does this lead to?

- scarring
- disturbances in the transmission of action potentials

4

MS usually affects what age group?

young adults (usual onset less than 55)

5

MS is most common in what type of people?

Those with western European lineage

6

Describe MS incidence in reference to the equator

Usually affects people who reside in temperate locations away from the equator

7

No population that is considered a high risk of developing MS lives within __ degrees north or south of the Equator

40

8

What genetic component appears to be associated with the susceptibility of MS?

the alleles of interleukin-2 and interleukin-7 alpha receptors

9

Where are the 2 alpha receptors located?

on the cell membranes of B and T lymphocytes

10

What are the 5 initial signs and symptoms of MS?

- Weakness
- Numbness
- Optic neuritic diplopia (double vision)
- Dysequilibrium
- Sphincter disturbance (urinary urgency)

11

What 3 UMN signs are found in patients with MS?

- Babinski sign
- Hyperreflexia
- Spasticity

12

What are the 4 types of MS?

- Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)
- Secondary progressive MS (SPMS)
- Progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS)
- Primary Progressive MS (PPMS)

13

What type of MS is the most common?

relapsing-remitting

14

Relapsing-remitting affects nearly __% of all patients

70

15

What is relapsing-remitting MS characterized by?

Increases in neurological dysfunction (relapse), followed by periods without disease progression (remission) in which the patient can achieve full recovery

16

__% of patients with RRMS go on to develop secondary progressive MS

80

17

Describe SPMS

The relapse-remitting course is followed by progression of symptoms with or without relapses, remissions or plateaus

18

Describe PRMS

Symptoms get progressively worse from onset and relapses may or may not resolve with full recovery

19

Primary Progressive MS occurs about __% of the time

10

20

Describe PPMS

There is continuous worsening of function from onset and there is no distinct relapses or remissions

21

What are 2 factors that may precipitate or trigger exacerbations?

- infection
- pregnancy

22

What imaging technique is most useful for diagnosing MS?

MRI

23

What do T1-weighted MRIs show?

- hypointense ("black holes") areas that represent axonal damage
- hyperintense (bright) lesions

24

What can Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted highlight?

inflammation with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, which helps identify new lesions

25

What do T2-weighted MRIs display?

the total number of lesions

26

What do lesions look like on a T2-weighted MRI?

high signal intensity areas

27

Can a definitive diagnosis of MS be based solely on lab findings?

No

28

Can MS be properly diagnosed if there is evidence of only a single lesion in the CNS?

No

29

What type of studies have been used to detect subclinical involvement of the visual, brainstem auditory, and somatosensory pathways?

Electrocerebral responses (aka evoked potentials)

30

What are the 3 CSF abnormalities found in MS patients?

- mild lymphocytosis
- slightly increased protein concentration
- elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG)

31

Are IgG bands specific to MS?

no

32

When can MS be diagnosed?

When there are 2 or more different regions of central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves) that have been affected at different times

33

What special procedure produces high resolution cross-sectional and three dimensional images of the retina, cornea and anterior chamber of the eye?

Optical Coherence Tomography

34

What do visual evoked potentials do?

Detect impaired transmission along optic nerve pathways

35

Are impaired VEPs specific to MS?

no, they should be used in collaboration with laboratory and clinical symptoms

36

Under what 2 circumstances is imaging diagnostic of MS?

- if a gadolinium-enhancing lesion is present at least 3 months after an initial clinical event
- if a new T2 lesion is found at any time compared with a baseline scan obtained at least 30 days after initial clinical event

37

What are the 4 criteria for MRI brain abnormality?

- At least one gadolinium-enhancing lesion or nine T2 hyperintense lesions if no enhancing lesion
- One or more infratentorial (or spinal cord) lesions
- One or more juxtacortical lesions
- At least three periventricular lesions

38

How many of the 4 MRI abnormalities must be present in order to diagnose?

3 of the 4

39

In patients with a single clinical event who do not satisfy criteria for MS, a diagnosis of what is given?

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)

40

What are patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) treated?

Beta-interferon or glatiramer acetate therapy to try and delay the progression to MS

41

What role do medications play in treating MS?

They can limit the recurrence of attacks and slow the progression

42

__% of patients are without significant disability 10 years after onset

50

43

What type of therapy is given first?

IV (typically methylprednisolone 1g/day for 3 days)

44

What role do corticosteroids play in treating MS?

Help to speed up recovery from acute relapses, however the magnitude of recovery shows no difference

45

What reduces the frequency of exacerbations in patients with relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive MS?

- Indefinite treatment with beta-interferon
- subcutaneous administration of glatiramer

46

What drug reduces the relapse rate when given intravenously but is also associated with an increased risk of the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy?

Natalizumab

47

True or False

Natalizumab can be used in combination with beta-interferon, glatiramer acetate, or other immune-modifying therapies

False

48

What drug reduces the relapse rate in MS?

Fingolimod

49

What drug is limited by liver toxicity in some patients?

Teriflunomide

50

When should Alemtuzumab be used?

if asymptomatic progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy develops from Natalizumab use

51

What is an effective FDA-approved drug to treat fatigue associated with MS?

modafinil

52

What drug is effective at improving timed gait in MS?

dalfampridine

53

Patients on interferon beta-1a drugs are more susceptible to what kinds of disorders?

depression or suicidal behaviors

54

What is a common cause of pain in MS?

Musculoskeletal strain and joint malalignment caused by weakened muscles

55

What has been proven to improve function while lessening disability, and enhancing the patients’ quality of life?

exercise

56

When should exercise sessions be scheduled and why?

in the morning before fatigue sets in and when core body temp is the lowest

57

MS patients have been known to only be able to achieve __-__% of their age predicted max HR

75-85

58

Exercise intensity should be limited to __-__% of peak HR or _--__% of peak VO2

60-75

50-65

59

What 2 things can help fight off spasticity?

increased flexibility and cryotherapy

60

Overall what is the basis of physical therapy?

Always be functional and limit fatigue