Flashcards in muscle and nerve diseases Deck (33):
what are some common symptoms associated with muscle disease?
weakness of skeletal muscle
short of breath
what are some common signs of muscular disease?
reduced tone or reflexes
motor weakness but not sensory
what investigations are important in suspected muscle disease?
what are 5 different types of muscular dystrophy?
what are channelopathies?
disorders of calcium, sodium and chlorine channels
whar are 4 different kinds of channelopathies?
familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis
hyperkalemic periodic paralysis
what processes are responsible for metabolic muscle disease?
disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
disorders of lipid metabolism
what are 2 inflammatory muscle diseases?
what are some symptoms of IMD?
painful weak muscles
DM has a characteristic rash
what investigations are used to diagnose IMD?
creatine kinase increase
EMG - inflammation and myopathic
what would be found on a muscle biopsy of a patient who has polymyositis?
what would be found on a muscle biopsy of a patient who has dermatomyositis?
B cells and CD4 cells
what is the treatment for inflammatory muscle disease?
what is the clinical presentation of myasthenia gravis?
weakness after chewing and talking
what investigations are performed to help diagnose myasthenia gravis?
acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody test
anti MuSK antibody test
how is myasthenia gravis treated?
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor to relieve symptoms
prednisolone and steroid saving agents for immunosuppression
what disorder of the thymus is associated with myasthenia gravis in young patients?
what disorder of the thymus is associated with older myasthenia gravis patients?
when would a thymectomy be an appropriate treatment option?
females younger than 40
what are some diseases of spinal nerve roots?
degenerative spine disease
what are some lesions of individual peripheral nerves?
vasculitic (mononeuritis multiplex)
what sensations can generalised peripheral neuropathy affect?
motor, sensory or both
what are some metabolic causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?
what are some toxic causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?
what are some infectious causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?
what are some malignant causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?
what are some inflammatory demyelinating causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?
acute = guillain barre syndrome
chronic = CIDP
what are some signs of nerve root disease?
myotomal wasting and weakness
dermatomal sensory change
what are some signs of individual nerve disease?
wasting and weakness of innervated muscle
specific sensory change
what are some symptoms of generalised peripheral neuropathy?
sensory AND motor symptoms starting distally and moving proximally
what investigations are important in diagnosing nerve diseases?
NCS (nerve conduction studies)
what are some signs of motor neuron disease?
LMN = muscle fasciculations, wasting, weakness
UMN = increased tone, brisk reflexes
no sensory involvement