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Flashcards in muscle and nerve diseases Deck (33):
1

what are some common symptoms associated with muscle disease?

weakness of skeletal muscle
short of breath
cardiomyopathy
myoglobinnuria
cramp/pain

2

what are some common signs of muscular disease?

wasting/hypertrophy
reduced tone or reflexes
motor weakness but not sensory

3

what investigations are important in suspected muscle disease?

creatine kinase
electromyography
muscle biopsy
genetic testing

4

what are 5 different types of muscular dystrophy?

duchennes
beckers
facioscapulohumeral
myotonic dystrophy
limb girdle

5

what are channelopathies?

disorders of calcium, sodium and chlorine channels

6

whar are 4 different kinds of channelopathies?

familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis
hyperkalemic periodic paralysis
paramyotonia congenita
myotonia congenita

7

what processes are responsible for metabolic muscle disease?

disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
disorders of lipid metabolism
mitochondrial myopathies/cytopathies

8

what are 2 inflammatory muscle diseases?

polymyositis
dermatomyositis

9

what are some symptoms of IMD?

painful weak muscles
DM has a characteristic rash

10

what investigations are used to diagnose IMD?

creatine kinase increase
EMG - inflammation and myopathic
muscle biopsy

11

what would be found on a muscle biopsy of a patient who has polymyositis?

CD8 cells

12

what would be found on a muscle biopsy of a patient who has dermatomyositis?

B cells and CD4 cells

13

what is the treatment for inflammatory muscle disease?

immunosuppression

14

what is the clinical presentation of myasthenia gravis?

fatiguable weakness
ptosis
weakness after chewing and talking
diplopia
limb weakness
SOB

15

what investigations are performed to help diagnose myasthenia gravis?

acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody test
anti MuSK antibody test
reptitive stimulation
EMG
tensilon test
CT chest

16

how is myasthenia gravis treated?

acetylcholinesterase inhibitor to relieve symptoms
prednisolone and steroid saving agents for immunosuppression

17

what disorder of the thymus is associated with myasthenia gravis in young patients?

thymic hyperplasia

18

what disorder of the thymus is associated with older myasthenia gravis patients?

malignant thymoma

19

when would a thymectomy be an appropriate treatment option?

females younger than 40
malignant thymoma

20

what are some diseases of spinal nerve roots?

degenerative spine disease
inflammation
infiltration

21

what are some lesions of individual peripheral nerves?

compressive/entrapment neuropathy
vasculitic (mononeuritis multiplex)

22

what sensations can generalised peripheral neuropathy affect?

motor, sensory or both

23

what are some metabolic causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?

alcohol
b12 deficiency
DM

24

what are some toxic causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?

drugs

25

what are some infectious causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?

lymes disease
HIV
leprosy

26

what are some malignant causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?

paraneoplastic syndrome

27

what are some inflammatory demyelinating causes of generalised peripheral neuropathy?

acute = guillain barre syndrome
chronic = CIDP

28

what are some signs of nerve root disease?

myotomal wasting and weakness
reflex change
dermatomal sensory change

29

what are some signs of individual nerve disease?

wasting and weakness of innervated muscle
specific sensory change

30

what are some symptoms of generalised peripheral neuropathy?

sensory AND motor symptoms starting distally and moving proximally

31

what investigations are important in diagnosing nerve diseases?

blood tests
genetic analysis
Lumbar puncture
nerve biopsy
NCS (nerve conduction studies)

32

what are some signs of motor neuron disease?

LMN = muscle fasciculations, wasting, weakness
UMN = increased tone, brisk reflexes
no sensory involvement

33

how is MND diagnosed?

unique combination of UMN and LMN signs
EMG