Flashcards in memory and cognition Deck (47):
what is a brief summary of cognition?
describes the integration of all sensory information to make sense of a situation
what is neuronal plasticity?
ability of central neurons to adapt their neuronal connections in response to learning experiences
what is an association area of the brain?
areas which integrate information from multiple sources rather than being concerned with one specific function
where are memories formed?
what is the cingulate gyrus involved in?
what is the hippocampus involved in?
learning and memory
what is the amygdala involved in?
emotion and memory
what 2 lobes of the brain in particular does the limbic system have important connections with?
frontal and temporal lobes
what are the parts of the limbic system?
what is the limbic system responsible for?
instinctive behaviour (sex, thirst, hunger)
also plays a role in emotive behaviour
what is emotive behaviour driven by?
seeking reward or avoiding punishment
what feelings can the reward areas of the limbic system elicit?
what feelings can the punishment areas of the limbic system elicit?
what are experiences that are neither rewarding or punishing termed as?
what is the term given to the action of not remembering insignificant experiences?
what is the limbic system responsible for with regards to memory?
selects what experiences are stored in memory
what does almost all sensory imformation go through with regard to the limbic system?
hippocampus, which in turn relays information to other limbic system structures
what happens to peoples long term memory when they have bilateral hippocampal damage?
unable to form new long term memories
what are the differnet types of memory?
immediate or sensory memory
short term memory
intermediate long term memory
long term memory
what is immediate/sensory memory?
memory of a few seconds, describes the ability to hold experiences in the mind for a few seconds
what is short term memory?
used for short term tasks such as dialing a phone number, mental arithmetic, reading a sentence. associated with reverberating circuits
what is intermediate long term memory?
hours to weeks
associated with chemical adaptation at the presynaptic terminal
what is long term memory?
hours - lifetime
associated with structural changes in synaptic connections
what does short term memory depend on?
maintained excitation of reverberating circuits
what type of synapses are there in a reverberating circuit?
how can short term memories be consolidated into long term memory storage?
if it is deemed "significant"
what causes amnesia?
if the refreshing effect of the reverberating circuit is interrupted i.e. in head trauma
what is anterograde amnesia?
inability to recall events following the injury, can be short lived or permanent depending on the severity of the injury
what is retrograde amnesia?
unable to remember events leading up to the injury.
what happens if the thalamus is damaged but the hippocampus is not in regard to amnesia?
only retrograde amnesia presents
what causes "strengthening" of synapses on intermediate long term memory
increasing calcium ion entry to presynaptic terminals
what structural changes occur at synapses in long term memory?
increase in neurotransmitter release sites on presynaptic membrane
increase of number of NT vesicles stored and released
increase in number of presynaptic terminals
what is long term potentiation?
when EPSPs in the post synaptic cells are bigger, which strengthens the synapse
what are the two main types of long term memory?
declarative or explicit memory
what is declarative memory?
abstract memory for events (episodic memory) and for words, rules and language (semantic memory)
where is declarative memory mainly based?
what is procedural memory?
memory acquired slowly through repetition - includes motor memory for acquired motor skills such as sports
where is procedural memory mainly based?
what is the process called whereby short term memory is converted to long term memory?
consolidation - onvolves selective strengthening of synaptic connections through repetition
how is the "significance" of a memory determined?
frontal cortex and its association with the reward/punishment centres in the limbic sstem assess the significance of an event in the Short term memory
where are "coded" memories stored?
in the sensory and association areas of the cortex
what does "coding" result in?
new memories being stored alongside other existing memories that the brain deems similar
what 4 structures make up the papez circuit?
what area does the papez circuit communicate during the process of consolidation?
sensory and association areas
where are different components of memory stored?
in different part of the cortex e.g. visual component in visual cortex and so on
what is there a severe less of in alzheimers disease?
cholingergic neurons in the brain, including the hippocampus