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Flashcards in memory and cognition Deck (47):
1

what is a brief summary of cognition?

describes the integration of all sensory information to make sense of a situation

2

what is neuronal plasticity?

ability of central neurons to adapt their neuronal connections in response to learning experiences

3

what is an association area of the brain?

areas which integrate information from multiple sources rather than being concerned with one specific function

4

where are memories formed?

limbic system

5

what is the cingulate gyrus involved in?

emotion

6

what is the hippocampus involved in?

learning and memory

7

what is the amygdala involved in?

emotion and memory

8

what 2 lobes of the brain in particular does the limbic system have important connections with?

frontal and temporal lobes

9

what are the parts of the limbic system?

hypothalamus
hippocampus
cingulate gyrus
amygdala

10

what is the limbic system responsible for?

instinctive behaviour (sex, thirst, hunger)
also plays a role in emotive behaviour

11

what is emotive behaviour driven by?

seeking reward or avoiding punishment

12

what feelings can the reward areas of the limbic system elicit?

well being
euphoria
sexual arousal

13

what feelings can the punishment areas of the limbic system elicit?

terror
anger
pain

14

what are experiences that are neither rewarding or punishing termed as?

insignificant experiences

15

what is the term given to the action of not remembering insignificant experiences?

habituation

16

what is the limbic system responsible for with regards to memory?

selects what experiences are stored in memory

17

what does almost all sensory imformation go through with regard to the limbic system?

hippocampus, which in turn relays information to other limbic system structures

18

what happens to peoples long term memory when they have bilateral hippocampal damage?

unable to form new long term memories

19

what are the differnet types of memory?

immediate or sensory memory
short term memory
intermediate long term memory
long term memory

20

what is immediate/sensory memory?

memory of a few seconds, describes the ability to hold experiences in the mind for a few seconds

21

what is short term memory?

seconds-hours
used for short term tasks such as dialing a phone number, mental arithmetic, reading a sentence. associated with reverberating circuits

22

what is intermediate long term memory?

hours to weeks
associated with chemical adaptation at the presynaptic terminal

23

what is long term memory?

hours - lifetime
associated with structural changes in synaptic connections

24

what does short term memory depend on?

maintained excitation of reverberating circuits

25

what type of synapses are there in a reverberating circuit?

all excitatory

26

how can short term memories be consolidated into long term memory storage?

if it is deemed "significant"

27

what causes amnesia?

if the refreshing effect of the reverberating circuit is interrupted i.e. in head trauma

28

what is anterograde amnesia?

inability to recall events following the injury, can be short lived or permanent depending on the severity of the injury

29

what is retrograde amnesia?

unable to remember events leading up to the injury.

30

what happens if the thalamus is damaged but the hippocampus is not in regard to amnesia?

only retrograde amnesia presents

31

what causes "strengthening" of synapses on intermediate long term memory

increasing calcium ion entry to presynaptic terminals

32

what structural changes occur at synapses in long term memory?

increase in neurotransmitter release sites on presynaptic membrane
increase of number of NT vesicles stored and released
increase in number of presynaptic terminals

33

what is long term potentiation?

when EPSPs in the post synaptic cells are bigger, which strengthens the synapse

34

what are the two main types of long term memory?

declarative or explicit memory
procedural/reflexive/implicit memory

35

what is declarative memory?

abstract memory for events (episodic memory) and for words, rules and language (semantic memory)

36

where is declarative memory mainly based?

hippocampus

37

what is procedural memory?

memory acquired slowly through repetition - includes motor memory for acquired motor skills such as sports

38

where is procedural memory mainly based?

cerebellum

39

what is the process called whereby short term memory is converted to long term memory?

consolidation - onvolves selective strengthening of synaptic connections through repetition

40

how is the "significance" of a memory determined?

frontal cortex and its association with the reward/punishment centres in the limbic sstem assess the significance of an event in the Short term memory

41

where are "coded" memories stored?

in the sensory and association areas of the cortex

42

what does "coding" result in?

new memories being stored alongside other existing memories that the brain deems similar

43

what 4 structures make up the papez circuit?

cingulate gyrus
hippocampus
anterior thalamus
mamillary body

44

what area does the papez circuit communicate during the process of consolidation?

frontal cortex
sensory and association areas

45

where are different components of memory stored?

in different part of the cortex e.g. visual component in visual cortex and so on

46

what is there a severe less of in alzheimers disease?

cholingergic neurons in the brain, including the hippocampus

47

what is korsakoffs syndrome?

vitamin B1 deficiency which leads to damage of limbic system structures- ability to consolidate memory is impaired