Flashcards in Muscle Damage and Repair Deck (16):
What is a strain or sprain a result of?
From contraction-induced high forces often from eccentric contractions or stretching
What is a contusion?
Due to direct blows to a muscle and aren't contraction-induced
What is myositis ossificans?
Characterized by ossification (bone type mass in tissue) within muscle tissue after a muscle contusion
Where do overuse injuries typically occur?
On a tendon
What type of injury is the most common?
What is a Grade I injury?
Mild strain with no impairment or loss of range of motion, mild pain
A few fibers torn
What is a Grade II injury?
Moderate impairment decreased ROM and moderate loss of strength, marked tenderness
Approx. half the fibers torn
What is a Grade III injury?
Palpable defect with swelling and edema, ruptured of many fibers or the whole muscle, immediate pain
What happens if the mitochondria is damaged?
What are the principle targets and biochemical mechanisms of cell injury?
Disturbance in calcium homeostasis
Damage to cellular membranes (plasma and lysosomal)
Damage to DNA and misfolding of proteins
Why is excess calcium an issue in cells?
It activates proteolytic enzymes phospholipases and caspases
Which enzymes are biomarkers for liver damage?
Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
Which enzymes are biomarkers for heart and SM damage?
Which enzymes are biomarkers for SM damage?
Which enzymes are biomarkers for heart muscle damage?
Troponin I and II
cTnI and cTnT