Muscle Damage and Repair Flashcards Preview

IMSK Exam 2 > Muscle Damage and Repair > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscle Damage and Repair Deck (16):
1

What is a strain or sprain a result of?

From contraction-induced high forces often from eccentric contractions or stretching

2

What is a contusion?

Due to direct blows to a muscle and aren't contraction-induced

3

What is myositis ossificans?

Characterized by ossification (bone type mass in tissue) within muscle tissue after a muscle contusion

4

Where do overuse injuries typically occur?

On a tendon

5

What type of injury is the most common?

Over-exertion injuries

6

What is a Grade I injury?

Mild strain with no impairment or loss of range of motion, mild pain
A few fibers torn

7

What is a Grade II injury?

Moderate impairment decreased ROM and moderate loss of strength, marked tenderness
Approx. half the fibers torn

8

What is a Grade III injury?

Palpable defect with swelling and edema, ruptured of many fibers or the whole muscle, immediate pain

9

What happens if the mitochondria is damaged?

Decreased ATP
Increased ROS

10

What are the principle targets and biochemical mechanisms of cell injury?

Mitochondria
Disturbance in calcium homeostasis
Damage to cellular membranes (plasma and lysosomal)
Damage to DNA and misfolding of proteins

11

Why is excess calcium an issue in cells?

It activates proteolytic enzymes phospholipases and caspases

12

Which enzymes are biomarkers for liver damage?

Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
Alanine aminotransferase

13

Which enzymes are biomarkers for heart and SM damage?

Lactate dehydrogenase

14

Which enzymes are biomarkers for SM damage?

Creatine Phosphokinase

15

Which enzymes are biomarkers for heart muscle damage?

Troponin I and II
cTnI and cTnT

16

What is rhabdomylosis?

Damage of SM leading to breakdown products such as myoglobin which is harmful to the kidneys