Muscular-Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Muscular-Skeletal System Deck (17)
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1

5 functions of the bones

- framework and support
- protection
- storage
- movement
- blood cell formation

2

Depressed fracture

- broken bone portion pressed inward
- typical of skull fractures

3

Compression fracture

- bone is crushed
- common in porous bones (osteoporotic bones of older people)

4

Spiral fracture

- ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone
- common sports fracture

5

Impacted fracture

- broken bone ends are forced into each other
- commonly occurs when someone attempts to break a fall with outstretched arms

6

Greenstick fracture

- bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks
- common in children (bones are more flexible)

7

Comminuted fracture

- bone breaks into many fragments
- common in older people with brittle bones

8

Simple vs. Compound

Simple (closed) fractures do not penetrate the skin, while compound (open) fractures do penetrate the skin

9

Ligaments

connect bone to bone

10

Tendons

connect muscle to bone

11

Joint

the point where two bones meet

12

Cartilage

- fibrous material (connective tissue)
- strong but flexible
- cushions bones, slippery surface to allow movement
e.g. ears and nose

13

4 functions of muscles

- Movement
- Stability
- Generate heat
- Additional functions (protect organs, regulate passage of substances)

14

Properties of muscles

- excitability
- elasticity
- contractibility
- extensibility

15

Skeletal muscle

- attached to bones, or for some facial muscles, to skin
- voluntary
- no rhythmic contraction

16

Smooth muscle

- mostly in walls of hollow visceral organs
- involuntary
- rhythmic contraction in some

17

Cardiac muscle

- walls of heart
- involuntary
- rhythmic contraction