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Flashcards in The Integumentary System Deck (18)
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1

Epidermis

- made mostly of dead cells
- protects body from environment (water, sun, pathogens, etc.)
- contains cells that produce melanin
- cells filled with keratin

2

Dermis

- composed of living cells and specialized structures (sensory neurons, blood vessels, muscle fibres, hair follicles, glands)
- sense conditions and signals from environment (e.g. heat and pressure)
- regulate body temperature
- protect body from infectious diseases

3

Hypodermis

- made up of fat cells, which act as energy reserves
- protective, shock-absorbing layer
- insulate body against heat loss

4

Sweat pores

- allow sweat to leave the skin and evaporate

5

Hair shaft

- dead, keratin-filled cells
- protect and insulate body

6

Oil glands (sebaceous)

- found on face and scalp
- secrete fatty substance called sebum
- sebum prevents excess water loss, and lubricates and softens the skin and hair

7

Sweat glands

- release excess water, salts, and urea
- regulate body temperature by releasing sweat

8

Vascular region

- blood vessels provide nourishment to living cells, and help regulate body temperature
- arteries carry blood to cells
- veins carry blood away from cells

9

Nerve fibre

- sense conditions and signals from environment

10

Functions of the skin

- protective barrier
- retains body fluid
- protects against disease
- eliminates waste products
- regulates body temperature

11

Melanin

- determines skin colour
- absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation
- amount produced depends on heredity and the length of time skin is exposed to UV radiation
- increased amounts occur in response to injury of the skin by UV radiation

12

Apocrine glands

- have about 2000
- inactive before puberty
- found in hair follicles, armpits, and the groin

13

Eccrine glands

- more abundant
- in palms, forehead, and foot soles, as well as everywhere else in the body that apocrine glands aren't located

14

What layer of skin do tattoo needles need to hit?

Dermis

15

Explain why the concentration of melanin varies in populations who live closer to the equator compared to those who live in the northern hemisphere.

People who live close to the equator are exposed to more ultraviolet radiation and must produce more melanin to protect their skin, versus people who live in the northern hemisphere. Less melanin allows them to absorb enough rays to make more vitamin D.

16

Thick skin vs. Thin skin

Thick skin: epidermis has 5 layers, found in fingertips, palms, and the soles of feet
Thin skin: epidermis has 4 layers, found everywhere else on the body

17

3 ways the skin regulates body temperature

- sweat glands release sweat to cool the body
- fat cells insulate the body against heat loss
- blood vessels dilate to allow for heat loss and constrict to retain heat

18

Parts of the integumentary system

- oil glands
- hair
- nails
- sweat
- skin