Flashcards in Musculoskeletal and Nerve Trauma Deck (53)
What is Trauma
produced by some sort of force. internal, or external.
What is a Mechanical Injury?
Force that changes the structure of a muscle/tendons/ligament.
What are the properties of tissues?
What is Load (tissue Property)
external force causes reaction within the tissues
What is stiffness (tissue property)
ability of a tissue to resist a load.
What is stress (tissue property)
internal resistance to load
What is Strain (tissue property)
internal change in tissue
What is Creep?
a deformation in shape. creep is a constant force/strain
What are the components of tissue loading?
Tension, compression, shearing (across the fibers)
repetitive dynamic use over time
High incidence in athletics. composed of contractile cells that produce movement.
What characteristics does a musculotendinous unit posses?
irritability, contractility, conductivity, elasticity.
What are the three types of muscle?
cardiac, smooth, striated
What is a muscle strain?
A stretch, rip, or rear to muscle or adjacent tissue.
What is the cause of a muscle strain?
1)failure in reciprocal coordination of agonist and antagonist. 2)electrolyte imbalance due to profuse sweating 3) strength imbalance.
Grade I Muscle Strain
some fibers have been stretched or torn resulting in tenderness and pain on active ROM, movement painful but full ROM present
Grade II Muscle Strain
Number of fibers have been torn and active contraction is painful, usually a depression or divot is palpable, some swelling and discoloration result
Grade III Muscle Strain
Complete Rupture of muscle or musculotendinous junction, significant impairment, with initially a great deal of pain that diminishes due to nerve damage.
How long should treatment of a muscle strain last?
6-8 weeks. Return to play too soon could result in major injury.
What is a Muscle Cramp?
Painful involuntary skeletal muscle contraction. Occurs in well-developed individuals when muscle is in shortened position. can be experienced at night, or at rest.
What is Muscle Guarding?
Following injury, muscles within an effected area contract to splint the area in an effort to minimize pain through limitations in motion
What is a Muscle Spasm?
A reflex caused by trauma.
What is a Clonic Muscle Spasm?
alternating involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations in quick succession
What is a Tonic Muscle Spasm?
Rigid Contraction that lasts a period of time
What is Muscle Soreness?
Overexertion in strenuous exercise resulting in muscular pain.
What are the two types of muscle soreness?
Acute-onset muscle soreness
Delayed-onset muscle soreness
What is the breaking point of a tendon?
6-8% increased length. tears generally occur in the muscle, not the tendon.
What is the most susceptible tendon to injury?