Musculoskeletal Pathology - Bikman Flashcards Preview

DMD 5246- Integrated Systems/ Disease and Wellness 1 > Musculoskeletal Pathology - Bikman > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Pathology - Bikman Deck (36)
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1

Describe the differences between osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes

Osteoblasts- creates bone matrix and signals osteoclasts
Osteoclasts- degrades bone
Osteocytes- embedded osteoblasts

2

What is the ligand that activates osteoclasts?

RANK

3

What regulates RANK?

Osteoprotegerin (OPG)

4

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Congenital Disease
Many types based on collagen
Blue Sclera
Dentinogenesis imperfecta
Multiple fractures
Hearing loss

5

Achondroplasia

Congenital Disease
Dwarfism
Affects the long bones
Autosomal dominant

6

Osteopetrosis

Congenital Disease
"stone bone"
Bone cannot be reabsorbed
Dense, but brittle bones
Autosomal recessive and dominant
Delayed erruption of teeth

7

Fiberous Dysplasia

Congenital Disease
Replacing bone with soft tissue
Three types: monostotic, polystotic, McCune-Albright Syndrome

8

Osteoporosis

Acquired Disorder
Loss of bone, but same ratio of minerals
Primary- from age
Secondary- from everything else

9

Paget Disease

Acquired Disorder
Random excess bone formation
Can cause osteosarcoma, heart disease, deafness or blindness

10

Ricketts / Osteomalacia

Acquired Disorder
Deficiency in Vitamin D
Ricketts- young
Osteomalacia- older
Weak tooth enamel; higher risk for caries

11

Hyperparathyroidism

Acquired Disorder
Primary- excess secretion of PTH from one or more parathyroid glands
Secondary- increase of PTH from a chronic disease
Can get loss of lamina dura

12

Scurvy

Acquired Disorder
Too little vitamin C
Leads to impaired osteoid matrix formation
Manifestations include- osteoporosis, bleeding gums, subperiosteal hemmorraging (bleeding in bone)

13

Langerhans' cell histiocytosis

Acquired Disorder
Birbeck granules
Cause bone lesions

14

Describe the repair process of a fracture

Blood vessel rupture
Platelet clotting
Bone progenitor cells cover fractured site

15

Osteonecrosis

From ischemia (lack of blood and oxygen)
Not from infection

16

Bisphosphonate-associated necrosis (BON)

Comes from after a patient has taken Bisphosphonate for osteoporosis
Can interfere with formation of bone after surgery or injury
Can get phossy jaw

17

Osteomyelitis

2 Types: pyogenic and tuberculous
Pyogenic- caused by bacteria infections
Tuberculous- caused by tuberculosis and affects the long bones and vertebrae

18

What are the routes of spreading of osteomyelitis?

Hematogenous dissemination
Contiguous infection spread
Traumatic implantation

19

Osteoma

Benign Bone forming tumor
Affects the face
Older people
Normal bone

20

Osteoid Osteoma

Benign Bone forming tumor
Metaphysis of the femur and tibia
Woven bone
Younger people

21

Osteoblastoma

Benign Bone forming tumor
Like osteoid osteoma
Vertebrae
Younger people

22

Primary osteosarcoma

Malignant Bone forming tumor
Usually affects the femur
Younger people
"Sunburst pattern" on radiograph

23

Secondary osteosarcoma

Malignant Bone forming tumor
Femur, humerus, pelvis

24

Osteochondroma

Benign Cartilage forming tumor
10-30 years of age
Bone and cartilage as a cup

25

Enchondroma

Benign Cartilage forming tumor
30-50 years of age
Small bones of the hands and feet

26

Chondrosarcoma

Malignant Cartilage forming tumor
Older people
Affects pelvis, humerus, femur

27

Osteoarthritis

Degradation of the cartilage
Most common joint disorder
Affects older people
Primary- age
Secondary- younger people with no reason

28

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Destruction of articular cartilage and underlying bone
More common in women
Bilateral
Likely a combo of genetics and environment
Type 4 autoimmune disease

29

Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies

Inflammation of ligaments
HLA associated

30

Gout

From urate crystal formation because of supersaturated fluids
Primary- absence without any other disease
Secondary- occurs along with another disease