Musculoskeletal Practical Flashcards Preview

Anatomy II > Musculoskeletal Practical > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Practical Deck (192):
1

Muscles of the quadricep

Sartorius
Rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis

2

Superficial Veins of the Lower Limbs

Saphenous Vein (great and small)

3

Fits like a non-stretchy compression stocking on your thigh. Assists in venous return

Fascia lata

4

The obturator nerve arises from the ______ plexus

Lumbar

5

The femoral nerve arises from the _______ plexus

Lumbar

6

The sciatic nerve arises from the ________ plexus

Lumboacral

7

All motor and almost all sensory below the knee is innervated by branches of the ________ nerve. A superficial nerve called the _________ nerve carries some sensory.

Sciatic
Saphenous

8

Nerve that supplies anterior compartment of the thigh. Derives from ___, ___, ___

Femoral nerve
L2, L3, L4

9

Nerve that supplies posterior compartments of the thigh and lower leg. Derives from ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___.

Sciatic nerve
L4, L5, S1, S2, S3, S4

10

The gluteals, sub-gluteals, and external genitalia are innervated by the ___________ plexus.

Lumbosacral

11

Nerve that includes fibers S2, S3, and S4

Pudendal nerve

12

The gluteals received blood supply from the ________________. They are from the ________ division of the ________________.

Superior and inferior gluteal arteries
Posterior division of the Internal Iliac artery

13

The perineum and external genitalia receive blood supply from the ___________. This is from the ___________ division of the ___________.

Internal Pudendal Artery
Anterior division of the internal iliac artery

14

The adductor muscles of the leg receive blood supply from the ___________. This is from the _________ division of the ___________.

Obturator Artery
Anterior division of the internal iliac artery

15

The external iliac artery becomes the _________ artery when it passes the _________ __________.

Femoral
Inguinal ligament

16

The femoral artery branches into ____________ and ____________.

Deep femoral (adductors, hamstrings, quads)
Medial/lateral femoral circumflex (head and neck of femur)

17

The femoral artery becomes the _________ artery once it travels through the _______ ______, which splits into the __________ and the ___________.

Popliteal
Popliteal Fossa
Anterior Tibial
Posterior Tibial

18

The _________ artery branches directly off of the popliteal artery, and supplies the knee.

Geniculars

19

The _________ artery is a branch of internal iliac artery. It travels through the _________ foramen and gives blood supply to the _________ ______.

Obturator Artery
Obturator Foramen
Femoral Head

20

Necrosis of the femoral head due to absence of blood supply. Causes include trauma (especially femoral neck fx), radiation, steroid use, chemotherapy, alcohol abuse, etc.

Avascular necrosis

21

The great saphenous vein empties into the _________ vein, while the small saphenous vein empties into the _________ vein

Femoral vein
Popliteal vein

22

What makes up the borders of the femoral triangle?

Inguinal ligament
Sartorius
Adductor longus

23

The medial compartment in the thigh serves to _______ the leg

Adduct

24

The lateral compartment in the leg serves to ______ the foot

Evert

25

Innervation for the posterior lower leg

Tibial nerve

26

Innervation for the anterior lower leg

Deep fibular nerve

27

Innervation for the lateral leg

Superficial fibular nerve

28

Compartment of the lower leg responsible for dorsiflexion of the ankle, inversion of the foot, and extension of the toes

Anterior Compartment

29

What is contained in the anterior compartment?

Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis longus

30

Compartment of the lower leg responsible for plantar flexion and eversion of the foot

Lateral Compartment

31

What is contained in the lateral compartment?

Fibularis (peroneus) longus
Fibularis (peroneus) brevis

32

Compartment of the lower leg responsible for plantar flexion of the foot and flexion of the toes

Posterior Compartment

33

What is contained in the superficial posterior compartment?

Gastrocnemius (2 heads)
Soleus
Plantaris

34

What is contained in the deep posterior compartment?

Popliteus
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus
Tibialis posterior

35

The ______ nerve is a cutaneous sensory nerve of the lower leg and foot. It is formed from branches off the _________ and _________ nerves. It supplies sensory to the _____________ and _____________.

Sural
Tibial and Common fibular
Lateral lower leg and lateral foot

36

The _________ nerve supplies sensory to the lower leg from the femoral nerve

Saphenous

37

Synarthroses

Immovable joints

38

Amphiarthroses

Slightly movable joints

39

Diarthroses

Freely movable joints

40

Bony connection made up of ligaments only

Syndesmoses

41

Epiphyseal plates and the joint between the first rib's costal cartilage and manubrium of the sternum are examples of: __________

Synchondroses
"Junction of the cartilage"
Immovable

42

Intervertebral disc and the pubic symphysis of the pelvis are examples of: ___________

Symphyses
"Fibrocartilage unites the bones"
Slightly movable, provide strength and flexibility

43

Part of the synovial joint:
Spongy cushions absorb compression, protect ends of bones from being crushed

Articular cartilage

44

Part of the synovial joint:
Potential space, small amount of synovial fluid

Joint (Synovial) cavity

45

Part of the synovial joint: Fibrous capsule of dense irregular connective tissue that's continuous with periosteum

Outer layer of the Articular Capsule

46

Part of the synovial joint:
Synovial membrane of loose connective tissue (makes synovial fluid). Lines all internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage

Inner layer of the Articular Capsule

47

Part of the synovial joint:
Blood filtrate full of special glycoproteins. Nourishes cartilage and functions as a slippery lubricant.

Synovial fluid

48

Part of the synovial joint:
Most are capsular, or thickened part of capsule.
Some are extracapsular or intracapsular

Reinforcing ligaments

49

Means "crescent"
Made of fibrocartilage, found in joints with bone ends of different shapes

Meniscus

50

Flattened sac lined by synovial membrane, where ligaments, muscles, tendons, or bones overlie each over and rub together

Bursa

51

Found on tendons subjected to friction

Tendon sheaths

52

Treatment of bursitis

Steroid injection of bursa

53

Ligaments can stretch ___% beyond normal length before they tear

6%

54

The head of the femur is ________ than the lip of the acetabulum, _______ stability

Wider
Increasing

55

Three external ligaments "tether" in the head of the femur when standing:

Iliofemoral
Pubofemoral
Ischiofemoral

56

The ACL runs from the anterior ____________ area of the tibia to the _________ ___________ of the femur

Intercondylar
Lateral condyle

57

The PCL runs from the posterior ____________ area of the tibia to the ________ _________ of the femur

Intercondylar
Medial condyle

58

The ankle bone is also known as the ______, and articulates with both the ______ and ________

Talus
Tibia
Fibula

59

The heel bone is also known as the _______. The ________ fits on top of it.

Calcaneus
Talus

60

Cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot

Tarsus

61

Bones of the tarsus

1. Calcaneus
2. Talus
3. Cuboid
4. Navicular
5, 6, 7: Cuneiform bones

62

The talocrural joint is composed of:

Lateral malleolus
Medial malleolus
Talus

63

The subtalar joint is composed of the ________ and the __________, and allows _________ and _________ of the foot

Talus and calcaneus
Inversion and eversion

64

The ligament found on the medial aspect of the subtalar joint is the _______ ligament

Deltoid

65

The ligaments found on the lateral aspect of the subtalar joint are the __________, ___________, and __________.

Anterior talofibular ligament
Posterior talofibular ligament
Calcaneofibular ligament

66

The midfoot is composed of the:

1. Cuboid
2. Navicular
3, 4, 5: Cuneiforms

67

The three arches of the foot include the ___________, _____________, and the _____________

Internal (medial) longitudinal arch
External (lateral) longitudinal arch
Transverse (or anterior) arch

68

Very dense organized layer of deep fascia that runs down the middle of the sole. Helps to maintain the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.

Plantar Aponeurosis

69

Functions of the human skeletal system

Support
Protection
Movement
Reservoir for minerals/adipose tissue
Hematopoiesis

70

The scapulae sternum, ribs, and most bones of the skull are

Flat bones

71

The vertebrae, hip bones, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones are

Irregular bones

72

Bone cell:
Found in both the periosteum and the endosteum

Osteoblasts

73

Bone-building cells

Osteoblasts

74

Bone cells:
Synthesize and secrete collagen and other organic components of bone matrix

Osteoblasts

75

Bone cells:
Initiate the calcification process

Osteoblasts

76

Mature bone cells

Osteocytes

77

Former osteoblasts that have become trapped within the matrix they secreted

Osteocytes

78

Bone cells: no longer secrete matrix, but are responsible for maintaining bone tissue

Osteocytes

79

Huge cells created by fusion of up to 50 monocytes

Osteoclasts

80

These bone cells digest bone matrix (bone resorption)

Osteoclasts

81

These bone cells are concentrated in the endosteum

Osteoclasts

82

On the side of the cell that faces the bone surface, the plasma membrane is deeply folded into a ruffled border. Secretes digestive enzymes which digest bone matrix

Osteoclasts

83

Pumps out hydrogen ions to create an acidic environment that eats away at the matrix

Osteoclasts

84

Bone matrix consists of 1/3 _________ and 2/3 ___________ components

1/3 organic
2/3 inorganic

85

Main protein of the organic component of bone

Collagen

86

The two salts that make up the inorganic component of bone

Calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide
Interact to form hydroxyapatite

87

The shaft of a long bone is referred to as the:

Diaphysis

88

Thick collar of compact bone surrounding a central marrow cavity

Diaphysis

89

In adults, the marrow cavity of bone contains __________, compared to kids ____________

Fat (yellow bone marrow)
Red bone marrow

90

Expanded ends of a long bone are referred to as the:

Epiphyses

91

Thin layer of compact bone covering an interior of spongy bone. Joint surface is covered with articular cartilage

Epiphyses

92

Double-layered membrane covering the external surface of the bone (except for joint surfaces)

Periosteum
Richly supplied with nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels

93

Delicate connective tissue membrane that covers internal bone surfaces (the marrow surfaces)

Endosteum

94

Covers the trabeculae of spongy bone in the marrow cavities

Endosteum

95

Lines the canals that pass through compact bone

Endosteum

96

Contains both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Endosteum

97

Soft tissue occupying the medullary cavity of a long bone, the spaces amid the trabeculae of spongy bone, and the larger haversian canals

Bone marrow

98

Looks like blood but with a thicker consistency. Consists of a delicate mesh of reticular tissue saturated with immature RBCs and scattered adipocytes

Red bone marrow

99

Hematopoietic tissue

Red bone marrow

100

Hematopoietically inactive

Yellow marrow

101

No longer produces blood, although in the event of severe or chronic anemia, can transform back into red marrow

Yellow marrow

102

In adults, red marrow is limited to the ___________, ____________, __________, and proximal heads of the ______ and ________

Axial skeleton
Pectoral girdle
Pelvic girdle
Humerus and femur

103

Consists of multiple cylindrical structure units known as osteons or haversian systems

Compact bone

104

Function like weight-bearing pillars that are arranged parallel to one another along the long axis of a long bone

Haversian systems (osteon)

105

Haversian systems consist of a central canal, known as a ___________, surrounded by concentric layers of calcified _____________

Haversian canal
Bone matrix

106

What passes through the haversian canal?

Veins, arteries, nerves, lymphatics

107

Concentric "tubes" that surround a haversian canal are known as ________

Lamellae

108

Collagen fibers in neighboring lamellae run in _________ directions, helping bone to better withstand _________ forces

Opposite
Twisting

109

Run perpendicular to the haversian canals, bringing in blood and nerve supply from the _________ to the haversian canals and on to the marrow (medullary) cavity

Volkmann's Canals
Periosteum

110

Lying in between intact osteons are incomplete lamellae called ________ _________. These fill the gaps between ________ or are remnants of bone remodeling.

Interstitial lamellae
Osteons

111

Spider-shaped ________ occupy small cavities known as ________ at the junctions of the lamellae.

Osteocytes
Lacunae

112

________ connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal

Canaliculi

113

________ allow the osteocytes to exchange nutrients, wastes, and chemical signals to each other via ______ _______

Canaliculi
Gap junctions

114

Trabeculae contain irregularly arranged ________ and osteocytes interconnected by _________

Lamellae
Canaliculi

115

How does spongy bone get its blood supply?

From the surrounding marrow (if red)
From Volkmann's channel (if yellow)

116

Before week 8, the human embryonic skeleton is made of ________ ________ and __________

Fibrous membranes
Cartilage

117

After week 8, these membranes and cartilage begin to be replaced by ______

bone

118

The development of bone from a fibrous membrane

Intramembranous ossification

119

The replacement of hyaline cartilage with bone

Endochondral ossification

120

This type of ossification takes place in the bones of the skull cap, facial bones, clavicles, pelvis, scapulae, and part of the mandible

Intramembranous ossification

121

Prior to intramembranous ossification, structures exist as fibrous embryonic membranes called ________

Mesenchyme

122

Intramembranous Ossification Step 1: _________ cells first cluster together and start to secrete the _________ components of bone matrix. These components become mineralized through crystallization of calcium salts. As calcification occurs, the mesenchymal cells differentiate into _________.

Mesenchymal
Organic
Osteoblasts

123

Intramembranous Ossification Step 2: Some ________ become trapped within bony pockets and differentiate into _________.

Osteoblasts
Osteocytes

124

Intramembranous Ossification Step 3: Developing bone grows outward from the ossification center in ________. Blood vessels trapped among the ______ branch into the area. _______ forms.

Spicules
Spicules
Periosteum

125

Intramembranous Ossification Step 4: ________ _______ forms around the spicules of growth and _____ _______ populates the spongy areas

Compact bone
Red marrow

126

Endochondral Ossification: Begins with formation of a ________ _______ model which will later be replaced by bone.

Hyaline cartilage

127

Most bones in the body develop via this model

Endochondral ossification

128

Endochondral ossification: large ________ grow, creating big spaces in the middle of the bone. When they die, the large spaces remain. The spaces create a path for ______ ________ to grow in, bringing _______ which create ossification centers.

Chondrocytes
Blood vessels
Osteoblasts

129

Endochondral Ossification: Secondary ossification centers are created within each epiphysis, where a cartilaginous area remains to become the ________ _________ _________

Epiphyseal growth plate

130

_________ beneath the _________ secrete bone matrix on the external surface of the bone, making the bone _________. Simultaneously, _________ on the _________ break down bone and widen the medullary cavity

Osteoblasts
Periosteum
thicker
Osteoclasts
Endosteum

131

At puberty, osteoblasts begin producing bone faster than the rate of _________ _________ __________. Thus the bone grows while the _______ _______ gets narrower and narrower and ultimately disappears.

Epiphyseal cartilage expansion
Epiphyseal plate

132

Fracture Repair Step 1: Immediately after the fracture, _______ _______ occurs. Over several hours, a large ________ _________ develops. Because of the vascular interruption, bone cells are deprived of nutrients and _____. The site becomes swollen, painful, and inflamed.

Extensive bleeding
Fracture hematoma
Die

133

Fracture Repair Step 2: Hematoma is infiltrated by capillaries and __________, which gradually clean up the debris and form fibroblastic ________ ________. Fibroblasts produce ______ _______ that span the break; others differentiate into ___________ and begin secreting cartilage matrix.
Osteoblasts begin forming spongy bone within the fibrous mass. The entire structure is known as a ________ ______ which splints the broken bone

Macrophage
Granulation tissue
Collagen fibers
Chondroblasts
Fibrocartilaginous callus

134

Fracture Repair Step 3: Bone trabeculae increase, converting the callus into a ____ ______ of spongy bone. Typically takes about ________ weeks for this to occur.

Bony callus
6-8 weeks

135

Fracture Repair Step 4:
During the next several months, the bony callus continuously remodels. __________ slowly dismantle the temporary supportive structures, while __________ rebuild the compact bone so that it returns to its original shape.

Osteoclasts
Osteoblasts

136

Most common cause of avascular necrosis of the hip

Femoral neck fracture
Closely followed by intertrochanteric

137

What vessel is typically destroyed in avascular necrosis of the hip?

Medial femoral circumflex supply

138

Which vessel supplies the scaphoid bone?

Radial artery

139

Bone will grow or remodel in response to the forces or demands placed upon it

Wolff's Law

140

Normal bone growth/maintenance cannot occur without sufficient dietary intake of _______ and ______ _____

Calcium
Phosphate salts

141

Vitamins D, C, A, K, and B12 are all necessary for:

Bone growth

142

Hormonal Effects on bone: ______ ________ and ________ stimulate bone growth

Growth hormone
Thyroxine

143

At puberty, rising levels of ____ ________ cause osteoblasts to produce bone faster than the epiphyseal cartilage can divide. This causes the characteristic _____ _______

Sex hormones
Growth spurt

144

Estrogen acts to stimulate _________ activity and inhibit ______ activity

Osteoblast
Osteoclast

145

Notable for short adult stature

Precocious Puberty

146

Insulin stimulates _____ _______, while glucocorticoids stimulate __________ activity

Bone formation
Osteoclast

147

________ acts to "tone down" blood calcium levels by decreasing _________ activity and stimulating ______ activity

Calcitonin
Osteoclast
Osteoblast

148

___________ ________ causes blood calcium to increase by decreasing ________ activity and increasing ________ activity

Parathyroid hormone
Osteoblast
Osteoclast

149

Term that encompasses many disorders in which osteoid (organic portion of bone) is produced but inadequately mineralized.

Osteomalacia

150

Children's form of osteomalacia. More detrimental. Signs include bowed legs, deformities of the pelvis, ribs, and skull

Rickets

151

________ rheumatic disease is usually self-limited and is often initiated by an outside force

Acute

152

A key step in starting a rheumatoid response is activation of regional blood vessel endothelium by _____________ _________

Pro-inflammatory cytokines

153

When complement is activated, it activates even more complement and attracts more inflammatory cells to the site. It also increases _______ _________, which increases inflammation at the site

Snowball effect of complement
Capillary permeability

154

Activate macrophage cells, which increases phagocytosis

Helper T1 cells

155

Primarily activate B cells, which increases antibody production

Helper T2 cells

156

Helper T-17 cells

Primarily activate granulocytes and autoimmune mechanisms

157

Increased risk with metabolic syndrome, high-purine diet, obesity, renal and heart disease

Gout

158

A microtubule poison

Colchicine

159

Chronic rheumatoid arthritis includes ________ formation. This is a membrane of granulation tissue made of mesenchyme and bone marrow-derived cells.

Pannus

160

Antibodies in RA

Rheumatoid factor
Anti-CCP

161

Sicca syndrome

Destruction of glands that produce tears and saliva
Manifestation of RA

162

Inhibitor of Dihydrofolate Reductase - inhibits creation of new DNA

Methotrexate

163

Osteoarthritis is related to loss of certain proteins of the cartilage called _________

Proteoglycans

164

Life-threatening interstitial inflammation which can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Associated with SLE

Serositis

165

Common tx for SLE

NSAIDs, hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids

166

Muscles that insert on the scapula (move the scapula)

Rhomboids
Trapezius
Pectoralis Minor
Levator Scapulae

167

Muscles that originate on the scapula (move the arm)

Subscapularis
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Teres major
Latissimus Dorsi
Coracobrachialis

168

Innervation for the biceps

Musculocutaneous nerve

169

Innervation for the deltoid

Axillary nerve

170

Subscapularis action

Internal rotation

171

Infraspinatus action

External rotation

172

Teres minor action

External rotation

173

Supraspinatus action

Abduction

174

The subclavian artery officially becomes the _________ artery when it travels over the ______ _____

Axillary
First rib

175

The axillary artery officially becomes the ______ artery when it travels past the _______ ________

Brachial
Teres minor

176

Branches of the Axillary Artery

Sixties Teens Liked Sex and Pot

Superior Thoracic Artery
Thoracoacromial Artery
Lateral Thoracic Artery
Subscapular Artery
Anterior Circumflex Humeral Artery
Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery

177

Anterior surface of the elbow

Cubital Fossa

178

Contents of the cubital fossa

Medial cubital vein
Brachial Artery
Median nerve

179

Musculocutaneous Nerve Motor Function

Flexors in the upper arm

180

Axillary Nerve Motor Function

Shoulder movements (abductors)

181

Radial Nerve Motor Function

Extensors (triceps)

182

Median Nerve Motor Function

Flexors of the forearm

183

Ulnar Nerve Motor Function

Intrinsic muscles of the hand

184

Most common brachial plexus injuries

Traction injuries

185

Erb's Palsies

Injury at C5, C6

186

Klumpke's Palsies

Injury at C8, T1
Results in a claw hand

187

Flexors of the Upper Arm and nerve innervation

Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Musculocutaneous nerve

188

Extensors of the Upper Arm

Triceps brachii
Radial nerve

189

Only nerve traveling in the posterior compartment

Radial Nerve

190

Posterior Compartment Muscles of the Forearm

Brachioradialis
Extensor digitorum
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Extensor carpi radialis longus

191

Anterior Compartment Muscles of the Forearm

Brachioradialis
Pronator Teres
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

192

Some Leaders Take Positions That They Can't Handle

1. Scaphoid
2. Lunate
3. Triquetral
4. Pisiform
5. Trapezium
6. Trapezoid
7. Capitate
8. Hamate