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The work done before a project starts in order to verify that it is possible. Usually include financing and site possibilities.

Feasibility studies, or due diligence


What are the five phases of the Architect's Basic Scope of Services?

Schematic Design
Design Development
Construction Documents
Bidding & Negotiation
Construction Administration & Observation


What are the steps to define the scope of services?

1) Determine what services are needed
2) Prepare a proposal for services
3) Negotiate the final scope of services
4) Prep the Professional Services Agreement
5) Monitor and Manage changes in scope (for additional services)


What are some QA/QC methods?

Procedure Checklists
Drawing Content Checklists
Clear Channels of Communications
Standard Details & Detail Libraries
Standard Office Specifications
Project Contact Lists
File Naming Standards
CAD Layer Name Standards
In-House or Peer Reviews
Senior Project Manager Review
Backup and Archive of Older Versions of Drawings
Standard Project Manuals


What are the benefits of a constructability review?

Reduced construction costs.
Identification of potential risk areas.
Contractor's ability to provide valuable input into the construction schedule and cost.


What types of projects should use a constructability review?

Complex or large projects with staging concerns.
Projects with tight schedules.
Projects using new construction methods
Innovative projects.


When should a Constructability Review be performed?

About halfway through the design.
At or near the plan approval stage.
When the materials are close to being finalized or initial quantities are determined.


To avoid a risky project, what should the architect team consider having?

Cash Flow


What are the three typical categories of Owner-driven conflict/delays?



What are the architect's options when a client isn't paying?

Make future deliverables contingent on payment.
Remain in communication.
Try to find out why.
Charge interest.
Suggest alternative payment options.
Provide info to support the invoice.
Have your attorney send a strongly worded letter.
Stop all work.
File a lien.
Take legal action.


What is a lien?

A claim of interest in a property until a debt is paid. Property owner cannot finance, refinance, or sell the property until the lien is removed.


Who can place a lien on a project?

Anyone who provides labor or materials for a project. Architects, GCs, Subcontractors, Material Suppliers, Vendors... etc.


What are the three types of liens in construction?

Mechanics Lien
Design Professional's Lien
Stop Notice


What are the steps in a mechanics lien?

1) Serve: lien served to the owner by registered mail.
2) Record: lien filed at county recorders office.
3) Enforce: file a lawsuit to foreclose the mech's lien.


What is a Stop Notice?

A document given for the purpose of stopping, intercepting, or freezing funds that have not yet been paid on a construction project in an attempt to ensure payment. (Only effective against unpaid money)

The main benefit over mech's lien is that a Stop Notice can be used on public projects.


What should be included in a fee proposal?

Description of the Project.
Scope of Services.
Additional Services.
Proposed Schedule.


What three factors determine compensation for a project?

1) The Value of the services
2) The Effort and experience required for the project
3) The Risks of the project

You should be compensated more for a quick project that may get you sued than a quick and easy project.


What Value does an Architect provide?

Design Reputation
Quality of Service
Project Management


What is a bottom-up analysis?

When one determines the fee for a project based on the effort required.


What is a Top-Down Analysis?

Determining the fee for a project based on an analysis of similar past projects, or some rule of thumb.


What is a Staff Analysis?

Determining the fee phase-by-phase by considering the number of staff and number of weeks it will take to complete.


What is a Contingency?

An extra fee that is only used if something happens that you didn't expect.


What is Retainer?

Up-front money from the client to start the project. Usually some % of the total fee.


What is a Fixed Fee structure?

Aka "Stipulated Sum"
Works well on projects with a clearly defined scope.
Offers the greatest chance of profit.
Reduce risk by building in a contingency.


What is an Hourly Fee Structure?

Arch. bills time like an attorney.
Staff track hours accurately.
Clients billed on hourly rates.
Works best when the scope is undefined.
- Fails to take into account value


What is an Hourly, Not-To-Exceed Structure?

Hourly structure with a maximum amount, so the owner doesn't have to worry about a massive bill. Used when the arch will help the owner decide the scope.


What is a Unit Cost fee structure?

A fixed amount based on square footage for each type of room. Great for hotels or hospitals with unknown overall size. Can later be converted into a fixed fee.


What is a Percentage of Construction Cost fee structure?

Used when basing fee off the Owner's budgeted construction cost. (Ex. 6% of a 400m project)


What are the different types of invoicing?

Hourly (sent monthly)
Regular Fee Schedule (based on total fee, monthly)
Percent Complete (25% comp, 50% comp, etc..)
Milestones (SD, DD, CD, etc.)
Work When Paid (Up front, or deliverable based)


What kind of agreements are in the AIA A-Series Contracts?

Owner + General Contractor