Myocardial pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Myocardial pathology Deck (14):
1

most common primary cardiac neoplasms in
(a) infants/children
(b) teens/adults

(a) infants/children: Rhabdomyoma (benign)

(b) teens/adults: Cardiac myxoma
- Most common primary tumor of heart in teens and adults

2

Location of Cardiac Myxoma:

Mitral valve (LA>>RA)

3

types of virus that may infect the myocardium

Coxsackivirus
ECHO
Influenza
HIV
cytomegalo

4

types of bacteria that may infect the myocardium

chlamydia
rickettsiae

5

Viral myocarditis:

• Inflammation (mostly lymphocytes) with injury to the myocardium
• Typical viral causes are coxsackievirus A or B or other enteroviruses

6

Parasitic Myocarditis

• More common is Chagas Disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)
• Trichinosis (mostly in skeletal muscle, but possible in heart)

7

autoimmune disease that may affect the heart

• Collagen vascular diseases (CVD or
Connective Tissue Disease (CTDs)
• Lupus, scleroderma, RA

8

Name one medication associated with toxic cardiomyopathy and
one non-medication substance associated with toxic cardiomyopathy.

• Adriamycin (medication) - Chemotherapeutic drug
○ Cumulative dose-dependent toxicity
• Cobalt (non medication)- metal joints, get shed into systemic system


*note: Toxic metabolic disease: Toxic A. "Toxic" Effects: Some agents have toxic effects on muscle

9

Hemochromatosis

Issues with excess iron
Typically have more organs involved

Final cause of death could be heart failure

10

Amyloidosis Most common disease association

plasma cell neoplasm (multiple myeloma)
- Plasma cell leukemia pumping out Ab and light chains
--> Condense and deposit into cells --> restrictive cardiomyopathy


note: salmon stain + birefringence

11

LV EJ %:
- Dilated
- Hypertrophic
- Restrictive

- Dilated: <40%
- Hypertrophic: 50-80%
- Restrictive: 45-90%

12

- Dilated
- Hypertrophic
- Restrictive
Mechanism of HF

- Dilated: impairment of contractility (systolic dys)
- Hypertrophic: impairment of compliance (diastolic dys)
- Restrictive: impairment of compliance (diastolic dys)

13

Causes of these cardiomyopathy:
- Dilated
- Hypertrophic
- Restrictive

- Dilated: idiopathic, alcohol, peripartum, myocarditis, hemochromatosis, chronic anemia, sarcoidosis

- Hypertrophic: Freidreich ataxia, storage diseases, infants of diabetic mothers

- Restrictive: amyloidosis, radiation induced fibrosis

14

Complications of dilated cardiomyopathy

Mural thrombus formation (in apex or LA appendage )!
○ Systemic embolization
○ Arrhythmia