Flashcards in NASM CPT4 flashcards -- BAS Deck (100):
When is the best time for clients to measure their resting heart rate?
Upon waking in the morning
Name two common tests for assessing cardiorespiratory efficiency.
YMCA 3-Minute Step Test and Rockport Walk Test
What are three methods of assessing body fat percentage?
Underwater weighing, bioelectrical impedance, and skin-fold measurements
What do you call measurable data regarding a client's physical state, such as body composition, movement assessments, and cardiorespiratory ability?
What is the BMI range for a person who has a very high risk of disease?
What are the two main calf muscles that are responsible for concentrically accelerating plantar flexion
Gastrocnemius and soleus
Name the muscle that is responsible for concentrically accelerating hip extension and external rotation.
What do you call information gathered from a client that includes their occupation, lifestyle, and medical background
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the feet turn out?
Soleus, lateral gastrocnemius, and biceps femoris (short head)
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the knees move inward?
Adductor complex, biceps femoris (short head), tensor fascia latae, vastus lateralis
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when there is an excessive forward lean?
Soleus, gastrocnemius, hip flexor complex, abdominal complex
Name the class of medication that decreases heart rate and blood pressure
What is an indicator that a female client’s ankle complex will be in a plantar flexed position for extended periods of time based on occupation?
Wearing dress shoes (high heels)
Name three postural distortion patterns that might be seen during a static postural assessment.
Pronation distortion syndrome, lower crossed syndrome, upper crossed syndrome
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the low back arches?
Hip flexor complex, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the client's arms fall forward?
Latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major/minor
During a Pushing assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when a client's shoulders elevate and/or the head moves forward?
Upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and levator scapulae
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles if a client's feet turn out?
Medial gastrocnemius, medial hamstring complex, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus
What are the probable underactive muscles when a client's arms fall forward during an Overhead Squat Assessment?
Middle/lower trapezius, rhomboids, rotator cuff
What are the probable underactive muscles when a client's knees move inward during an Overhead Squat Assessment?
Gluteus medius/maximus, vastus medialis oblique
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a client shows an excessive forward lean?
Anterior tibialis, gluteus maximus, erector spinae
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a client’s low back arches?
Gluteus maximus, hamstring complex, intrinsic core stabilizers
During a Pushing assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a client’s shoulders elevate?
Middle/ lower trapezius
During a Pushing assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a client’s head protrudes forward?
Deep cervical flexors
After assessing a client’s Overhead Squat, which muscles should you have them foam roll and stretch?
After assessing a client’s Overhead Squat, which muscles should you have them strengthen?
Name the assessment that measures lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control.
Shark Skill Test
Name 2 conditions in which Beta- blockers might be prescribed.
High blood pressure and arrhythmias
What muscle action develops tension while lengthening and prevents resistance from accelerating in an uncontrolled manner?
Name the imaginary bisector that divides the body into right and left halves.
This movement primarily occurs from side to side, as if there were a wall in front of and behind the body.
Frontal plane movements
Name the energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body.
Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP
What is the starting zone of cardiorespiratory training when a client scores poor during the YMCA 3- Minute Step Test?
What is the starting zone of cardiorespiratory training when a client scores average on the YMCA 3- Minute Step Test?
What information can be provided to the health and fitness professional by knowing the client's occupation?
Common movement patterns
What relevant information can you learn about a client based on their occupation and movement capacity?
Extended periods of sitting, repetitive movements, dress shoes, mental stress
Which muscles have decreased neural control once a client has had an ankle sprain?
Gluteus maximus and gluteus medius
What muscle action develops when a muscle exerts more force than is placed on it, resulting in the shortening of the muscle?
This chamber of the heart gathers oxygenated blood coming to the heart from the lungs.
Give the straight percentage method equation for calculating a client’s target heart rate.
(220-client’s age) x desired intensity
Name the muscles involved in respiratory inspiration.
Diaphragm, external intercostals, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor
What are three guidelines for the health and fitness professional when taking the radial pulse of a client?
Touch should be gentle, take the pulse when the client is calm, take the pulse over the course of 3 days (at the same time each day) and average the results to ensure accuracy
Name the functional unit of the muscle that lies in the space between two Z lines. It produces muscular contraction and is formed by repeating sections of actin and myosin.
The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
The heart rate training zone between 65 to 75% that builds an aerobic base and aids in recovery.
The heart rate training zone between 76 to 85% that increases both aerobic and anaerobic endurance.
The heart rate training zone between 86 to 95% that builds high-end work capacity.
Represents the pressure within the arterial system after the heart contracts.
Systolic blood pressure
Represents the pressure within the arterial system when the heart is resting and filling with blood.
Diastolic blood pressure
The method of measuring body fat percentages that conducts an electrical current through the body to measure fat.
What are the four skin-fold sites tested when using the Durnin-Womersley formula for body fat assessment?
Biceps, triceps, subscapular, iliac crest
What is the waist-to-hip ratio for males and females that puts them at a greater risk for disease?
A ratio greater than 0.95 for males and greater than 0.80 for females
Muscles that assist the prime movers.
Risk for disease increases when an overweight person's BMI level is____.
25 or greater
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues.
What is the amount of time recovery pulse is taken after completing the YMCA 3- Minute Step Test?
Within 5 seconds of completing the exercise, take the client’s pulse for 60 seconds
What is the level that a client is instructed to squat to when performing the Overhead Squat assessment?
Height of a chair
Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.
Golgi tendon organs
Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change
On which clients should health and fitness professionals avoid the use of skin-fold calipers to measure body fat?
Very overweight clients
The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length.
What is the functional unit of the nervous system?
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover.
The process in which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
Compensations observed during the Overhead Squat assessment from the lateral view.
Low back arches, excessive forward lean, arms fall forward
Compensations observed during the Overhead Squat assessment from the anterior view.
Feet turn out and knees move inward
Name some of the benefits of circumference measurements.
Can be used on obese clients, good for comparisons and progressions, good for assessing fat patterns and distribution, inexpensive, easy to record
Name the systems of the human movement system (kinetic chain).
Nervous system, muscular system, skeletal system
Name the agonist, synergist, stabilizer, and antagonist muscles activated during a squat exercise.
Agonists: Gluteus maximus, quadriceps; Synergists: Hamstring complex; Stabilizer: Transversus abdominis; Antagonist: Psoas
The involved structures and mechanisms that the nervous system uses to gather sensory information and integrate it with previous experiences to produce a motor response.
What are some primary causes of muscle imbalance?
Postural stress, emotional duress, repetitive movement, cumulative trauma, poor training technique
Feedback used after the completion of a movement to help inform clients about the outcome of their performance.
Knowledge of results
The energy pathway used in moderate to high intensity activities that can only be sustained for 30 to 50 seconds.
Repeated practice of motor control processes, which leads to a change in the ability to produce skilled movements.
What are possible injuries associated with lower crossed syndrome?
Hamstring complex strain, anterior knee pain, low back pain
Name movement compensations observed during a Pushing assessment.
Low back arches, shoulder elevates, head migrates forward
When assessing a client during a Single-leg Squat, from which vantage point should you view the client?
Which muscle synergies (muscle groups) are primarily used in a Shoulder Press?
Deltoid, rotator cuff, trapezius
The name of the receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration in the joint.
Altered reciprocal inhibition, synergistic dominance, and arthrokinetic dysfunction all lead to this.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to properly recruit muscles to produce force concentrically, reduce force eccentrically, and isometrically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.
A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia, and surrounds the muscle.
What are the three support mechanisms of blood?
Transportation, regulation and protection
The Davies test is contraindicated for which group of people?
Individuals lacking shoulder stability
What muscle is responsible for concentrically accelerating shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation?
Name possible injuries associated with pronation distortion syndrome.
Plantar fasciitis, shin splints, patellar tendonitis, low back pain
Name the altered joint mechanics associated with lower crossed syndrome.
Increased lumbar extension and decreased hip extension
Which muscles would be lengthened in a client with upper crossed syndrome?
Deep cervical flexors, serratus anterior, rhomboids, mid-trapezius, lower trapezius, teres minor, and infraspinatus
What are the altered joint mechanics associated with pronation distortion syndrome?
Increased: Knee adduction and internal rotation, foot pronation and external rotation; Decreased: Ankle dorsiflexion and inversion
Name the lengthened muscles associated with lower crossed syndrome.
Anterior tibialis, posterior tibialis,
gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, transversus abdominis, and internal oblique
Average stroke volume of an adult.
Name two abdominal muscles used for trunk rotation.
Internal and external obliques
Name five performance assessment tests.
Davies Test, Shark Skill Test, Push-up Test, Upper Extremity Strength Assessment, Lower Extremity Strength Assessment
What positional guidelines do you give a client who is setting up for an Overhead Squat assessment?
Feet shoulder-width apart and pointed straight ahead; foot and ankle complex in a neutral position; arms raised overhead, with elbows fully extended
What regressions could you make for clients who are unable to perform a Single-leg Squat assessment?
Use outside support for squatting assistance or perform a Single-leg Balance without squat
A force that produces rotation.
Movement of the bones around the joints.
Name possible injuries associated with upper crossed syndrome.
Headaches, bicep tendonitis, rotator cuff impingement, and thoracic outlet syndrome
Name the short muscles associated with lower crossed syndrome.
Gastrocnemius, soleus, hip flexor complex, adductors, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae