Flashcards in NASM CPT4 flashcards -- Exercise Technique Deck (100):
Name the structures that make up the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC).
Lumbar spine, pelvic girdle, abdomen, and hip joint
Dysfunction within the connective tissue of the kinetic chain that is treated by the body as an injury, initiating this repair process.
Cumulative injury cycle
Name four core-strength exercises.
Ball Crunch, Back Extensions, Reverse Crunch, Cable Rotations
The type of flexibility training that applies gentle force to an adhesion, altering the elastic muscle fibers from a bundled position to a straighter alignment with the direction of the muscle and/or fascia.
Exercises in the core-stabilization level are identified through these characteristics.
They involve little motion through the spine and pelvis
What are four common ways a stressor causes breakdown or injury?
Stress fractures, muscle strains, joint pain, emotional fatigue
Name four core-stabilization exercises.
Marching, Floor Bridge, Floor Prone Cobra, Prone Iso-abs
Law stating that soft tissue models along the lines of stress.
Referred to as a co-contraction of global muscles, such as the rectus abdominis, external obliques, and quadratus lumborum.
It is critical that the core training program is designed to achieve these three functional outcomes in the right order.
1. Intervertebral stability, 2. Lumbo- pelvic stability, 3. Movement efficiency
What are the proper backside mechanics during sprinting?
Ankle plantar flexion, knee extension, hip extension, and neutral pelvis
What are the proper frontside mechanics during sprinting?
Ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, and neutral pelvis
The ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly, while maintaining proper posture.
The ability to react and change body position with maximum rate for force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities.
The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible.
Name four core-power exercises.
Rotation Chest Pass, Ball Medicine Pullover Throw, Front Medicine Ball Oblique Throw, Soccer Throw
The ability of the body to produce high levels of force for prolonged periods of time.
What is a component of core-power exercises that make them easy to identify?
Explosive movements with medicine balls
Name five balance-stabilization exercises.
Single-leg Balance, Single-leg Balance Reach, Single-leg Hip Internal and External Rotation, Single-leg Lift and Chop, Single-leg Throw and Catch
Name five balance-strength exercises.
Single-leg Squat, Single-leg Squat Touchdown, Single-leg Romanian Deadlift, Step-up to Balance, Multiplanar Lunge to Balance
Name three balance-power exercises.
Multiplanar Hop with Stabilization, Multiplanar Single-leg Box Hop-up with Stabilization, Multiplanar Single-leg Box Hop-down with Stabilization
What are four plyometric-stabilization exercises?
Squat Jump with Stabilization, Box Jump-up with Stabilization, Box Jump- down with Stabilization, Multiplanar Jump with Stabilization
Name four plyometric-strength exercises.
Squat Jump, Tuck Jump, Butt Kick, Power Step-up
Name three plyometric-power exercises.
Ice Skater, Single-leg Power Step-up, Proprioceptive Plyometrics
Exercises that use quick powerful movements involving an eccentric action immediately followed by an explosive concentric contraction.
Body position progressions in balance training.
Two-leg stable, single-leg stable, two- legs unstable, single-leg
Give examples of chest exercises used in the Stabilization Level of the OPT model.
Ball Dumbbell Chest Press, Push-up, Ball Push-up: hands on the ball, Standing Cable Chest Press
What are the two techniques used in corrective flexibility according to the integrated flexibility continuum?
SMR (self-myofascial release) and static stretching
Give examples of total-body power exercises
Two-arm Push Press, Barbell Clean, Dumbbell Snatch, Squat Thrust, Kettlebell Hang, Clean and Jerk
What is the minimum amount of time static stretches should be held?
Name two different leg-stabilization exercises.
Ball Squat and Multiplanar Step-up to Balance
What are three things that a client should have established prior to incorporating a dynamic stretching program?
Good levels of tissue extensibility, core stability, and balance capabilities
Name two strength level exercises for the legs.
Leg Press and Barbell Squat
Name two power level exercises for the legs.
Squat Jump and Tuck Jump
Give three examples of shoulder- power exercises.
Front Medicine Ball Oblique Throw, Overhead Medicine Ball Throw, Speed Tubing Shoulder Press
Give examples of total-body strength exercises.
Lunge to Two-arm Dumbbell Press; Squat, Curl, to Two-arm Press; Step-up to Overhead Press: sagittal plane; Romanian Deadlift, Shrug to Calf Raise
Based on the exercise selection continuum what exercises should be selected for the adaptation of stabilization?
Total-body, multi-joint or single joint, controlled unstable
Give four examples of core- stabilization exercises.
Marching, Floor Bridge, Floor Prone Cobra, Prone Iso-abs
Give four examples of core-strength exercises.
Ball Crunches, Back Extensions, Reverse Crunches, Cable Rotations
Body position progressions used for balance training.
1. Two-leg stable 2. Single-leg stable 3. Two-legs unstable 4. Single-leg unstable
Three types of core systems.
Local stabilization system, Global stabilization system, Movement system
What is the minimum duration pressure should be sustained on adhesions while performing self- myofascial release?
What are the seven methods for prescribing exercise intensity?
Peak VO2, VO2 reserve, Peak metabolic equivalent (MET), Peak maximal heart rate, Heart rate reserve, Rating of perceived exertion, Talk test
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements.
What are the acute variables for static stretching?
1-2 sets, hold each stretch for 30 seconds
What is the mechanism of action that occurs in active-isolated stretching?
When is the appropriate time to utilize dynamic stretching?
After self-myofascial release when training in Phase 5
How long should the cardiorespiratory portion of the warm-up last?
What does F.I.T.T.E. stand for?
Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type, Enjoyment
Example of a Zone 1 cardiorespiratory activity and intensity level.
Walking or jogging at 65-75% of maximal heart rate
Example of a Zone 2 cardiorespiratory activity and intensity level.
Group exercise classes or spinning at 76-85% of maximal heart rate
Example of a Zone 3 cardiorespiratory activity and intensity level.
Sprinting at 86-95% of maximal heart rate
Type of training that has been found to be just as beneficial as traditional forms of cardiorespiratory training.
Name the structures that make up the core.
Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex, pelvic girdle, abdomen, and hip joint
Name the five muscles of the Local Stabilization System of the core.
Transverse abdominis, internal oblique, lumbar multifidus, pelvic floor muscles, diaphragm
Name the four muscles of the movement system of the core.
Latissimus dorsi, hip flexors, hamstring complex, quadriceps
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows the full range of motion of a joint.
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns.
What are the benefits of a warm-up?
Increased heart rate and respiratory rate, increased tissue temperature, and increased psychological preparation for bouts of exercise.
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist.
Altered reciprocal inhibition
The principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it.
SAID Principle or Principle of Specificity
What does the acronym SAID in SAID Principle stand for?
Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands
What kinetic chain deviations must a certified personal trainer watch for in the cardiorespiratory portion of the workout for clients who possess rounded shoulders?
On steppers and treadmills watch for the grasping of the handles; on stationary bikes, treadmills and elliptical trainers watch for rounding of the shoulders.
Feedback used after the completion of a movement to help inform clients about the outcome of their performance.
Knowledge of results
Feedback that provides information about the quality of the movement during exercise.
Knowledge of performance
The type of specificity that refers to the weight and movements placed on the body.
The state where there is an elevation of the body's metabolism after exercise.
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
The three stages in the General Adaptation Syndrome.
Alarm reaction, resistance development, exhaustion
Four performance adaptive benefits from resistance training.
Increased strength, increased power, increased endurance, increased neuromuscular control
SAQ training can be used with what three nonathletic populations?
Youth, weight-loss clients, seniors
What is the drawing-in Maneuver?
A maneuver that is used to recruit the local core stabilizers by drawing the naval towards the spine.
Benefits of a cool-down include the following:
Reduced heart rate and breathing rates, gradually cools body temperature, returns muscles to their optimal length-tension relationships, prevents venous pooling of blood in lower extremities, restores physiological systems close to baseline
Give examples of total-body stabilization exercises.
Single-leg Squat Touchdown, Curl, to Overhead Press; Single-leg Romanian Deadlift, Curl, to Overhead Press; Single-leg Squat to Row; Ball Squat, Curl, to Press; Multiplanar Step-up Balance, Curl, to Overhead Press
Give examples of chest exercises used in the Strength Level of the OPT model.
Incline Dumbbell Chest Press; Incline Barbell Bench Press; Flat Dumbbell Chest Press; Barbell Bench Press
Give examples of chest exercises used in the Power Level of the OPT model.
Two-arm Medicine Ball Chest Pass; Rotation Chest Pass; Speed Tubing Chest Press; Plyometric Push-up
Give examples of back exercises used in the Stabilization Level of the OPT model.
Single-leg Pull-down; Ball Cobra; Standing Cable Row; Ball Dumbbell Row
Give examples of back exercises used in the Strength Level of the OPT model.
Seated Cable Row; Seated Lat Pull- down; Straight-arm Pull-down; Pull-up; Supported Dumbbell Row
Give examples of shoulder exercises used in the Stabilization Level of training.
Single-leg Overhead Press; Single-leg Dumbbell Scaption; Seated Stability Ball Military Press
The main goal of balance training is to continually increase the client's awareness of their limit of stability by creating______________.
Surface types for proprioceptive progressions during balance include.
Floor, sport beam, half foam roll, foam pad, balance disk, wobble board, BOSU ball
Exercises that use quick, powerful
movements involving an eccentric action immediately followed by an explosive concentric contraction.
Efficient movement requires eccentric force reduction, isometric stabilization, and concentric force production.
Integrated performance paradigm
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external load.
What are six ways to progress plyometric exercises?
Easy to hard, simple to complex, known to unknown, stable to unstable, body weight to loaded, activity-specific
Describe the five kinetic chain checkpoints?
Feet: shoulder-width apart, pointing straight ahead; Knees: in line with the second and third toes; Hips: level with lumbar spine in a neutral position; Shoulders: depressed and slightly retracted; and Head: cervical spine in a neutral position
What is dynamic balance?
Dynamic balance is the ability to move and change directions under various conditions without falling
What are the three phases of a plyometric exercise?
Eccentric phase, amortization phase, concentric phase
What is the proper progression for balance training when utilizing the proprioceptive continuum?
Floor, balance beam, half foam roll, foam pad, balance disk
The ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.
Rate of force production
The position of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during running movements.
A slight forward lean with neutral spine
What happens during the eccentric phase of a plyometric exercise
Increase in muscle spindle activity by pre stretching the muscle before activation
Research has demonstrated increased electromyogram activity and pelvic stabilization when this maneuver is performed.
What is delayed-onset muscle soreness?
Pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity.
What is the proper way to progress an exercise in the stabilization level of training?
Increase proprioceptive demand
Give eight reasons for the incorporation of flexibility training.
Correct muscle imbalances, increase joint range of motion, decrease excess tension of muscles, relieve joint stress, improve extensibility of musculotendinous junction, maintain normal functional length of muscles, improve neuromuscular efficiency, improve function
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.
What are the three phases of the integrated flexibility continuum?
Corrective flexibility, active flexibility, functional flexibility
The type of flexibility designed to improve extensibility of soft tissue and increase neuromuscular efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition.
During which phase of the general adaptation syndrome do stress fractures, muscle strains, joint pain and emotional fatigue occur?