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Flashcards in Natural Selection Deck (26)
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1

how many islands in the Galapagos

19

2

where are the Galapagos islands located

Pacific Ocean

3

features of natural selection

variation in a population
selection pressure
environment
adaptations

4

natural selection

the process in which an environmental factor acts on a population and results in some organisms having more offspring that survive to reproduce than others

5

over production

species tend to produce more offspring than can survive to maturity

6

variation

there is a natural variation between individuals in a population

7

selection

-survival of the fittest
some individuals are better suited to their environment than others and so survive better

8

reproduction

individuals that survive better are able to reproduce more during their lifetimes, and pass on their characteristics to the next generation

9

adaptation

over many generations, the characteristics of individuals that survive better and produce more, become more common in the population.

10

evolution

any change to the heritable traits in the population across generations

11

two reasons for changes in heritable traits

-mutations
-two individuals reproduce

12

two examples of evolution

-peppered moth changing colour because of soot
-dogs originating from grey wolves

13

who is Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell walace?

they are two scientists who studied and attempted to explain the process of evolution

14

what is comparative anatomy

the study of differences and similarities between living things

15

what are the two claims made for evolution

-all living things on earth are related as they evolved from a common ancestor
-evolution is powered by natural processes

16

embryology

the study of how creatures develop before being born or hatching from an egg
-developing in the womb

17

fossil record

used to see the similarities in the bones from organisms millions of years ago. they help the scientists to understand where the creature evolved from.

18

dna comparison

dna molecules contain chemical codes which act like recipes for living things. dna researchers can compare the dna of different living creatures to find out who are the most closely related

19

how many species are alive today

over 8.7 million

20

independent lines of evidence

comparative anatomy
embryology and development
fossil record
dna comparison
species distribution
evolution observed
predictive power of evolution
nested hierarchies of traits

21

what animals do cetaceans include

whales, dolphins and porpoises

22

selection pressure

the effect of the selective agent on a population

23

selective agent

an environmental factor that acts on a population during natural selection

24

Isolation

Keeping interbreeding groups apart by some barrier or mechanism

25

Modification

Define

26

Sexual selection

Define