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Flashcards in Nature Deck (30)
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1

Massey (2001)
A global sense of place

- rethink place in age globalisation - time-space compression, people experience mobility differently eg. gender, race
- places are a composite of all the relations that comprise it - relations not just local
- eg. Kilburn London high street - people around world with global connections vs Dakkah bangladesh slums trapped populations - experience time-space compression differently (different social groups)
- place composed social relations in it, no essence, fluid

2

Nayak and Jeffrey (2011)
Imperial tradition geog

- Geog colonial discipline - env determinism, exploration, cartography, core-periphery
- Geog fabulous (middle ages), geog militant (search truth), geog triumphant (expand knowledge globe)

3

Jackson (2006)
Thinking Geographically

- geographers + their methods key insight into how we view world + thus how contemporary issues can be solved
- Looking holistically + at links and having responsibility beyond individual
- social / imagined distance - remoteness socially constructed - eg. help boxing day tsunami but not neighbour (danny dorling - care for distant strangers) - generosity for us feel good help vs actually helping

4

Raymond Williams (1976)

- word nature most complex english language
- nature conceals human history held within it - nature reflections humans but humans see it as external to them
- Nature 3 phenomena - essence, force, material
- Nature from a descriptive form to a noun (thing in its own right)
- Nature personified as female
- External nature
- enlightenment / romantic movement idea ideal society

5

David Harvey (1996)

Nothing unnatural about NYC

6

Nature is Mediated / Nature and Colonialism - CS

Clayoquot Sound, BC
- Rainforest seen by painters awe, confusion (Emily Carr)
- First Nations community coastline - removed to reserves C20th (erased, seen as dying race - harmony with nature epistemology)
- vs mediation through silviculture - tree farming, max productivity
- political contest 1990s
- Environmentalists (beauty, aesthetics) vs resource communities (livelihoods)

7

McNeil (2005)
Nature

- Nature = necessary, stability C13th
- Nature = force, personified (power) C14th
- C16th Nature vs nurture
- C20th social naturalising theories eg. sociobiology - every aspect human behaviour from natural selection (social darwinism)
- reductionist as single force (complex social phenomenon reality nature)
- characterising traits as natural eg. white skin
- Industrial Rev - natural untouched sphere nature

8

Whatmore (2014)
Nature + Human Geog

- culture + nature hard to separate - nature mediated culture (nature = category human imagination, not neutral) - nature is a social construct [cultural view]
- [Marxist] material transformation nature - capitalism = nature refashioned as products human labour (second nature); humans centre nature
- both ignore force non-humans on social - uneven binary - need focus links / blur human and natural - [more-than-human geog]

9

Castree (2005)
Nature

- Q of nature eg. biological father vs step who meets societal expectations care and love eg. rape reproductive strategy or morally wrong
- see nature as external but everywhere, we are nature's beings
- Knowledges of nature - cognitive (what is natural / is not), moral, aesthetic - descriptive or normative
- Hegemonic ideas nature / society - take granted understandings nature and society as separated
- Nature not exist ontological level, so many meanings - words produce meaning - nature invisible under own name
- pass off values as values of nature eg. biodiversity
- nature = concept, knowledge produce about it is not the thing itself

10

Cronon (1996)
Wilderness

- nature as external, wilderness - this is a human creation
- Romantic notions sublime landscape - Garden Eden, God's presence earth - US National Parks use this idea (move savagery, wild to this)
- wilderness for elite tourism, society's escape - untouched illusion, indigenous moved of lands (erase history)
- frontier - terrain at limit social life - values - wilderness way to reclaim US values foundation society lost
(frontier idea savagery notions wilderness vs sublime)

11

Merchant (2004)
Fall from Eden

- Recovery narrative - decline pristine past, equal society, need recovery w sustainability
- Christian narrative Garden of Eden paradise, fall to wasteland (current state nature), human labour to recover garden and reach idealised landscape - tragic fall, recover to form earthly eden (from enlightenment and christian = mainstream narrative)
- gender roles eg. female eve as natures must be tamed - good state keeps unruly nature check by men (eve pristine, fallen and mother eve as improved garden) - nature = female, male = agency [feminists argue eve scientist, curious one, not weaker sex]
- Stewardship
- rupture God and nature justification human actions dominating nature

12

Smith (2010)
Ideology of Nature

- Ideology = set ideas of ruling class, who's claims are universalised so that we are blinded from production + social inequalities that exist for capitalism to function - one perspective becomes naturalised
- ideology of nature obscures the labour process production nature or social relations within it
- capitalism made certain view nature - eg. human domination acceptable
- external nature (waiting internalised through social production) and universal nature
- internal (human beings) / external (environment) nature
- nature as object to be mastered and manipulated - nature as external materials or objects of labour to be worked on to create commodities
- hostile wilderness as social function to legitimise attack on nature / external nature legitimises subjugation nature
- journey external nature (city) to universal (wildness) - without externalisation nature don't need stress universality
- metabolism of nature
- Uneven dev is endemic to capitalism

13

Ideology of Nature - CS x2

1. Haiti Earthquake 2010
- nature external - a force - hit EQ
- nature universal - all equally subject to forces or natural hazards in this case
- obscures historical inequalities Haiti (former Fr slave colony)
2. Canada's Boreal Forest
- seen as external, last wilderness
- universal value carbon store (carbon value $3.7 trillion 2005)
- construction obscures inequality - Aboriginal communities (600+) ignored - ideology makes them + their interests hidden / invisible

14

Accumulation by Dispossession CS

Canada Boreal forest
- First Nations dispossession = precondition for a realisation of carbon value (external forest universally significant for carbon - econ value not deforest) - carbon as commodity (tree worth more w carbon in) - first nation communities moved to reserve to assume no history

15

Market Environmentalism CS

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
- origins in trade agreement tropical timber producing countries to collectively agree on how to conduct their business - essentially increase trade but also sustainably manage forests
- didn't work so instead voluntary agreement = FSC which countries can sign and adhere certain sustainable principles

16

Dempsey and Suarez (2016)
Selling Nature to Save It

- for-profit biodiversity conservation (attempting make conserving ecosystems profitable to large-scale investment) - lot literacy eg. Green capitalism but limited private investment
- Accumulation by conservation or selling nature to save it
- Promoters - conservation market language e.g ecotourism, fund gap could met private investment
- Critics - new site capital accumulation, neoliberal repurposing conservation, giving in capitalisms need to constantly expand
- doesn't work eg. REDD dominated public funds (2/3 projects bilateral), so is Costa Rica PES programme
- Neoliberal trying to align environmentalism with capital accumulation

17

Representing Nature CS

Climate Refugees
- category to naturalise people - draw equivalence nature and people
- moving bc nature not choice, naturalises movement
- obscures social reasons may moving / historical context
- category w no legal status or political status
- many ambassadors of small islands refuse the label - migrating with dignity - actual refugees don't see themselves victims - the category is for those invent it

18

Castree (2014)
Enclosing Nature

- bound lines drawn nature / not nature as much as we allow ourselves to be
- patents can't be issued for discovery natural phenomenon - but patents expanding, controversy, trying eg. patent biotech - how far can widen nature / non natural - eg. 1980 Diamond versus chakrabarty - biochemist patent claims GM bacteria to break crude oil
- Can GM patent - invention or nature - previous indigenous cross-bred seeds - humans are inventors if work on non-human nature vs indigenous labour classed as evolution
- Bestiality - neg attitude human relationship animals - boundary transgressing act - eg. Enumclaw incident man died after sex with a horse met with disgust - norms of human behaviour (claim animal rights but we eat meat etc) - those outside have to challenge societal norms (same things like LGBTQ+)

19

Edward Said (1978)
Orientalism

- criticisms orientalist and the orient (west representations of Middle East)
- exposing gap west representation and realities

20

Indigeneity CS

Arctic indigenous communities constructed keepers traditional knowledge - obscures wider issues around colonial power

21

Gregory (2001)
Postcolonialism and the Production of Nature

- Postcolonial theory removes present from past
- colonial discourse constructs distance colonising and colonised (industrial europe and rest world) - triumph European modernity culture over nature
- Dualism representation vs reality + othering
- commodification nature; ideology nature
- link indigenous, climate and race - tropical sublime
- western organisation imposed

22

Nature's Materiality and agency CS

Wolf Packs in Algonquin Park, North Toronto
- park create to stop burins trees / logging - nature socially produced tourist, natural spot
- wolves safe env in park + deer food - political problem environmentalists want thrive vs others shoot (can't shoot) - wolves have agency
- anthropocentrism - human agency above nature

23

Latour Actor Network Theory

- Quasi-objects or hybrids - human and nature actors together - actors exist result networks (network draws things into being)
- refuses binary human/nature
- wolf = quasi-object - existence relies science studies them
- Principle symmetry - locate explanation quasi - both human and nature - eg. climate change human and biophysical
- Hybridity

24

Whatmore (2006) Materialist returns

- connection geo (earth) and bio (life)
- resurfacing more-than-human world
- landscapes co-fabricated human and earth
- humans part non-humanity's composition

25

Whatmore (2002) Wildlife

- wildlife = relational achievement (comes into being through relations people, animals - in social networks
1. displace wild (networks)
2. wildlife as active subjects (animate wildlife)
eg. 1 = leopard
1 empire, roman civilisation fighting, imperial networks
2 creatures carry connotation Africa inferior - there behaviour reflects network and conditions eg. captured, tortured
eg. 2 = crocodile
1 networks science, biological categories, study, latin names
2 agency - existence tied science, CITES

26

Hinchliff (2007) Hybrid Natures

- Nature = practised, co-produced and multiple
- over things created by human and nature but human shaping given dominance in interaction (Interactions weak idea)
- Hybrids + relational geog - things made up of relations - remove dualisms
- Problem Latour actor network theory - focus interconnections, so much relation miss differences - things are within networks but also the thing itself (hybrid can be too general)

27

Castree Democratic Model CS

Boreal Forest Leadership Council
- work together (range stakeholders) to get nature we want
- env organisations, forestry companies, indigenous, financial, oil etc devised Boreal Forest Conservation Framework

28

Haraway (2016) staying with the trouble

- env ethics for living in anthropocene - remake human-non human relations for habitable future
- sympoiesis - systems with no spatial or temporal boundaries - ethic living dangerous times - relationally - ones existence is tied to others
- looking for ways to open up new possibilities for living with non-human others
- staying with the trouble - be present, focus now and solve - but equally not get abstract, sublime indifference
- try exterminate chthulucene

29

Braun (2003)

- link Wilderness and frontier to race
- wild nature as a white space, white opportunities for risk

30

Mitchell (2000)

- race as fact nature (biology) western conciousness
- material, labour process, slavery
- racial ideology (natural, biology) justify colonial actions - ideology masked as nature
- fall from eden narrative races falling different rates