Flashcards in Nature and Development of Human Rights Deck (59)
What are human rights?
Human rights are fundamental rights. They are things to which every human being is entitled for just being human being
What are the 4 aspects of human rights?
1. Universal: for all individuals regardless of nationality, race, etc
2. Indivisible: all are equally important
3. Inherent: birthright- don't need to earn them
4. Inalienable: cant agree to give them up or have them taken away
Types of human rights
-civil and political rights
-Economic, social and cultural rights
-Collective rights such as environmental and peace rights and the right to self determination
What is slavery?
A type of forced labour in which a person is considered to be the legal property of another
What was the transatlantic slave trade?
The trading of African people by Europeans, who transported them as slaves from Africa to the colonies of the New World
Why did slave labour begin?
Industrial revolution meant countries required more resources
What were slaves used for?
Growing and manufacturing cash crops
Why was slavery eventually condemned?
Criticisms of violating the rights of man as people became aware of it in Europe and Evangelical Christians criticised it as unchristian
When did Britain rule slavery illegal? + case
1772 (R. v Knowles)
What act officially ended the importation of slaves
Slave trade act 1807 (UK)
Slave trade act 1808 (USA)
What act abolished slavery and freed the slaves in UK?
Abolition act 1833 (UK)
What and when abolished slavery worldwide?
League of Nations Slavery Convention in 1926
How did Abraham Lincoln assist in the abolition of slavery?
Added the 13th amendment to the US constitution
What article in the UDHR says slavery is prohibited?
What did trade unions do?
Worked to ensure fair wages and working conditions, equal pay, long service leave, paid public holidays, maternity leave, annual leave, occupational health and safety laws, and works compensation
Why and when did trade unions emerge
Industrial Revolution in response to appalling conditions, lack of safety, low wages and long working hours
What was the basis of trade unions
A single employee has very little power, but many workers combined in a single cause have a great deal of power
Why were trade unions originally unsuccessful?
They were outlawed by acts of parliament called Combination Acts
What organisation improved conditions of workers
International Labour Organisation- formed in 1919 as an International Agency of the League of Nations aimed at improving conditions. (Now part of UN-LoN is no longer)
What articles of the UDHR apply to labour and trade unions rights?
23 and 24
What does article 23 and 24 of UDHR say (5)?
-Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work adn to protection against unemployment
-Everyone, without discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work
-Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration, ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection
-Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests
-Everyone has the right to rest and leisure including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay
What is universal suffrage?
The universal right to vote in a democratic election
What does article 21 of the UDHR refer to?
What are the 3 rights of Article 21 of the UDHR?
- Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly of through freely chosen representatives
-Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country
-The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures
What was universal education originaly based on?
Religion- Sunday school
What act introduced compulsary education in NSW?
Public Education Act 1880 (NSW)
What does article 26 of the UDHR refer to?
What are the 3 main aspects of article 26 of the UDHR
-Everyone has the right to education. Fundamental education shall be free and compulsory
-Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
-Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children
What type of right is self-determination?