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Flashcards in NBME 8 Deck (43)
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1

pt gets new liver then has eosinophils in the graft

allograft rejection (acute rejection)

2

non-fatigable weakness affecting eyes, proximal muscles, dry mouth, constipation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes

lambert-eaton
-dx with repetitive nerve stimulation
-improves with repetitive use AND has autonomic dysfunction

3

before knee or hip arthroplasty (ortho surgery) what do you give to the patient

IV cefazolin or cefuroxime

4

what is the ejection fraction cut off for surgery

less than 35%

5

what is a normal FEV1

about 3L (about 80%)

6

what is a contraindication to pts having a lung transplant

if their FEV1 after surgery will be less than 800mL then no surgery

7

3 infectious causes of rash on palms and soles

CaRS
Coxsackie A
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Syphilis

8

young, fat, bad lipid panel and slightly elevated LFTs

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

9

whatre the requirements for tourette disorder

multiple motor tics AND at least 1 vocal tic for at least 1 year

10

at what age is sunscreen used

not commonly used in infants under 6 months
-keep them in shade and use protective clothing

11

unilateral bloody discharge from nipple but mammography shows no abnormalities

intraductal papilloma
-small fibroepithelial tumor within lactiferous ducts usually under the areola

12

if you see kerley B lines on chest x-ray what do you think of

pulmonary edema

13

if you see a pleural based hump shaped density on chest x-ray what do you think of

hampton hump = wedge shaped opacity due to pulmonary infarction

14

what is a major complication in pts with COPD

In most capillary beds of the body, decreased oxygen leads to vasodilation in order to facilitate more bloodflow to the area to maintain perfusion, but the lungs are the one exception in which decreased oxygen leads to constriction of blood vessels feeding that area so that blood is preferentially sent to well-oxygenated portions of the lung to minimize V/Q mismatch, but can lead to cor pulmonale in patients with COPD because their entire lungs are poorly oxygenated, leading to diffuse vasoconstriction and increased afterload on right ventricle

15

all neonates with sepsis should be empirically treated with what

amp and gent

16

what to give an MS patient and when

asymptomatic- Interferon beta
symptomatic (acute exacerbation)- glucocorticoids but if those dont work then do plasmapheresis

17

patient with type 2 diabetes and a glucose of 800 something then what do you think of

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

18

patient with asthma has what type of PFT pattern

obstructive

19

bowen disease

very early stage of skin cancer that is easily treatable
-red, scaly patch on the skin

20

how often should females with HIV have pap smears

annually

21

how to treat slipped capital femoral epiphysis

pin fixation to avoid avascular necrosis

22

what abx to use for aspiration pneumonia

aspiration = cover for anaerobes cause mouth and GI tract has them
-clindamycin
-metronidazole
-amox + clav

23

morning of back pain that gets better throughout the day and decreased range of motion means what

ankylosing spondylitis
-GET X-RAY TO CONFIRM

24

when would you need a bone scan

to help dx osteomyelitis, suspected fractures, and neoplasms

25

if you think someone has sjogrens whats the next best step

get an ANA

-then treat with symptomatic relief or hydroxychloroquine/methotrexate might also help

26

if you see exopthalmos what do you think of

graves disease
-pt will show sparing of the tendinous insertions (specific for graves eye muscle problems)

27

how to help with kidney function in someone with renal failure... diet-wise

restrict phosphorous cause a broken kidney can't handle it then it will build up and be higher in serum
-will take calcium out of bone
-cause metastatic calcifications

28

part of the brain atrophied in huntingtons and what is the triad

caudate nucleus

1. chorea (can also be facial tics and grimacing)
2. dementia
3. depression (many commit suicide)

29

how to treat uncomplicated vs complicated ectopic pregnancy

uncomplicated (no hemodynamic instability or signs of rupture): methotrexate

complicated: surgical exploration

30

what is seen in pts knees with osteoarthritis

osteophytes