UWSA2 Flashcards Preview

Step 2 > UWSA2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in UWSA2 Deck (43)
Loading flashcards...
1

woman gets soft subareolar mass from to weeks to months after cessation of breast feeding

galactocele
-benign milk retention cyst
-can get as large as 5cm
-dx made with ultrasound and needle aspiration

2

explain the difference b/w primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency

primary- destruction of adrenal cortex (bilateral)
-all three layers affected

secondary- disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary axis
-cortisol (glucocorticoid) and ACTH decrease
-aldosterone (mineralocorticoid) will be normal

*Note: neither include anything with the adrenal medulla

3

erythrasma

superficial skin infection affecting areas where skin touches or folds on itself
-well-demarcated, thin, red-brown plaques with wrinkling and fine scale
-coral-red appearance under woods lamp

4

signs of congenital CMV

jaundice
petechiae
hepatosplenomegaly
periventricular calcifications
microcephaly

5

how to treat a gout flare in pts on anticoagulants

colchicine

6

triad of acute liver failure
-there may be more symptoms but these three are the most specific

-elevated aminotransferases
-hepatic encephalopathy
-prolonged prothrombin time

*all of these in a pt without underlying liver disease

7

patient with extensor vs flexor posturing when lying supine, what do you think of

flexor means problem is above red nucleus

extensor means problem is below red nucleus

8

infarctions of this area impair motor functioning causing...
-hemiparesis
-dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome

basis pontis (basilar pons)

9

recurrent lapses into sleep or naps 3 or more times/week for 3 months
... what is this and what are the other criteria

narcolepsy and they must have 1 or more of the following as well

-cataplexy: brief loss of muscle ton precipitated by strong emotion
-low CSF levels of hypocretin-1
-shortened REM sleep latency

10

patient randomly has ischemic ulcers and gangrene but also smokes

thromboangiitis obliterans (buerger disease)
-inflammatory vaso-occlusive disorder to small and medium sized vessels

-tx: stop smoking

11

patient has asthma or cystic fibrosis that gets worse and leads to recurrent pulmonary infiltrates and bronchiectasis

allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
-tx: long-term oral steroids and itraconazole

12

treatment of hypercalcemia

severe > 14
-short term- hydration + calcitonin
-avoid loop diuretics unless heart failure exists
-long term- bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid)

moderate 12-14
-no treatment unless symptomatic, look above if needed

mild < 12
-no immediate treatment
-avoid thiazides, lithium, volume depletion, and prolonged bed rest

13

what is the strongest risk factor for prosthetic valve thrombosis of a mechanical heart valve

inadequate warfarin anticoagulation
-goal INR for mitral valve: 2.5-3.5
-goal INR for aortic valve: 2-3

14

bipolar I vs bipolar II

bipolar I
-manic episodes

bipolar II
-hypomanic episodes + 1 major depressive episode

15

cyclothymic disorder

2+ years of fluctuating, mild hypomanic & depressive symptoms

16

most common etiology of persistent nasal obstruction during childhood

adenoid hypertrophy
-presents with recurrent sinus and ear infections, mouth breathing, sleep disturbances/snoring due to apnea
-not seen on exam

17

what disease are nasal polyps associated with

cystic fibrosis
-able to be visualized on exam

18

positive fetal fibronectin test, next step?

give IM betamethasone if they are less than 34 weeks
-+ FFN is associated with delivery within the next week

19

if someone has lambert-eaton, what is your next step

get a chest CT cause its associated with small cell lung cancer

20

colonic pseudo-obstruction

aka ogilvie syndrome
-acute dilation of the colon only without any actual obstruction
-massive dilation of the cecum (diameter > 10cm)
-due to surgery, trauma, infection, electrolyte derangement (all decreased), medications, neuro disorders
-treat with npo, ng/rectal tube decompression
-use neostigmine if no improvement within 48 hours

21

what is one thing required in most states regardless of consent?

neonatal prophylaxis against gonococcal conjunctivitis
-topical erythromycin

22

what is the most common dermal manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome

livedo reticularis
-transient latticelike rash caused by impaired blood flow in superficial venules
-prolonged aPTT due to lupus anticoagulant

23

what does doxorubicin do to the heart

cardiac myocyte necrosis and death
-cardiomyocyte replacement by fibrous tissue
-not reversible

24

trastuzumab cardiotoxicity

myocardial stunning/hibernation without myocyte destruction
-reversible

25

delusional disorder

persistent delusions lasting 1+ months with no other psych symptoms

26

behcet syndrome

genital aphthous ulcers
-recurrent and painful
-heal w/i 1-3 weeks

27

liver mass with central stellate scar

focal nodular hyperplasia

28

patients with hyperemesis gravidarum are more likely to have what type of pregnancy

pts with hydatidiform mole or multifetal gestation are at increased risk for HG
-get pelvic u/s if they have it

29

loss of peripheral vision in a pt with normal visual acuity
-usually elderly pt

open-angle glaucoma
-enlarged cup/disc ratio > 0.6

30

DRESS syndrome

Drug- most commonly due to allopurinol and antiepileptics (phenytoin, carbamazepine)
Reaction (rash)- morbilliform eruption starts on face or upper trunk and becomes diffuse and confluent, with facial edema
Eosinophilia
Systemic Symptoms- fever, malaise, diffuse lymphadenopathy with some sort of organ involvement (liver, kidney, lung)

-can happen 2-8 weeks after drug initiation
-offending drug should be stopped immediately and usually pts recover completely