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1. When getting down to two answers, choose the assessment answer (assess, collect, auscultate, monitor, palpate) over the intervention except in an emergency or distress situation. If one answer has an absolute, discard it. Give priority to answers that deal directly to the patient’s body, not the machines/equipments.

2. Key words are very important. Avoid answers with absolutes for example: always, never, must, etc.


with lower amputations patient is placed in prone position.

small frequent feedings are better than larger ones.


Assessment, teaching, meds, evaluation, unstable patient cannot be delegated to an Unlicensed Assistive Personnel.

LVN/LPN cannot handle blood.


Amynoglycosides (like vancomycin) cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.

IV push should go over at least 2 minutes.


If the patient is not a child an answer with family option can be ruled out easily.

In an emergency, patients with greater chance to live are treated first


ARDS (fluids in alveoli), DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulaton) are always secondary to something else (another disease process).

Cardinal sign of ARDS is hypoxemia (low oxygen level in tissues).


in pH regulation the 2 organs of concern are lungs/kidneys.

edema is in the interstitial space not in the cardiovascular space.


weight is the best indicator of dehydration

wherever there is sugar (glucose) water follows.


aspirin can cause Reye’s syndrome (encephalopathy) when given to children

when aspirin is given once a day it acts as an antiplatelet.


use Cold for acute pain (eg. Sprain ankle) and Heat for chronic ( rheumatoid arthritis)

guided imagery is great for chronic pain.


when patient is in distress, medication administration is rarely a good choice.

with pneumonia, fever and chills are usually present. For the elderly confusion is often present.


Always check for allergies before administering antibiotics (especially PCN). Make sure culture and sensitivity has been done before adm. First dose of antibiotic.

Cor pulmonale (s/s fluid overload) is Right sided heart failure caused by pulmonary disease, occurs with bronchitis or emphysema.


COPD is chronic, pneumonia is acute. Emphysema and bronchitis are both COPD.

in COPD patients the baroreceptors that detect the CO2 level are destroyed. Therefore, O2 level must be low because high O2 concentration blows the patient’s stimulus for breathing.


exacerbation: acute, distress.

epi always given in TB syringe.


prednisone toxicity: cushing’s syndrome= buffalo hump, moon face, high glucose, hypertension.

4 options for cancer management: chemo, radiation, surgery, allow to die with dignity.


no live vaccines, no fresh fruits, no flowers should be used for neutropenic patients.

chest tubes are placed in the pleural space.


angina (low oxygen to heart tissues) = no dead heart tissues. MI= dead heart tissue present.

mevacor (anticholesterol med) must be given with evening meal if it is QD (per day).


Nitroglycerine is administered up to 3 times (every 5 minutes). If chest pain does not stop go to hospital. Do not give when BP is < 90/60.

Preload affects amount of blood that goes to the R ventricle. Afterload is the resistance the blood has to overcome when leaving the heart.


Calcium channel blocker affects the afterload.

for a CABG operation when the great saphenous vein is taken it is turned inside out due to the valves that are inside.


unstable angina is not relieved by nitro.

dead tissues cannot have PVC’s(premature ventricular contraction. If left untreated pvc’s can lead to VF (ventricular fibrillation).


1 t (teaspoon)=

5 ml


1 T(tablespoon)= 3 t =

15 ml


1 oz=

30 ml


1 cup=

8 oz


1 quart=

2 pints


1 pint=

2 cups


1 gr (grain)=

60 mg


1 g (gram)=

1000 mg


1 kg=

2.2 lbs


1 lb=

16 oz