where does the visceral compartment of the neck lie?
anteriorly, and extends from the base of the skull to the thoracic outlet
what bones, muscles, and structures are in the visceral compartment of the neck?
hyoid bone, suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, pharynx, esophagus, larynx, and trachea
what layer of the deep cervical fascia encloses the structure in the visceral compartment of the neck?
pretracheal layer buccopharyngeal fascia is a continuation of the pretracheal fascia that surrounds the posterior aspect of the pharynx and esophagus
where does the vertebral compartment of the neck lie?
posteriorly, and extends from the foramen magnum to the thoracic outlet
what bones, muscles, and structures are in the vertebral compartment of the neck?
cervical vertebrae, skeletal muscles that attach to the vertebrae, the ventral rami of the cervical plexus and brachial plexus, and the vertebral arteries and veins
what layer of the deep cervical fascia encloses the structures of the vertebral compartment of the neck?
prevertebral layer (that makes sense...)
what separates the prevertebral layer from the buccopharyngeal fascia?
what is clinically relevant about the retropharyngeal space?
it is a potential space that allows the structures of the visceral compartment to glide against the prevertebral fascia during swallowing an infection in this space may spread inferiorly into the superior mediastinum
both neck compartments are partially covered by what two superficial muscles? what layer of the deep cervical fascia then encloses both the compartments, as well as splits to enclose the two muscles?
investing layer of the deep cervical fascia encloses both compartments and splits to enclose the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) which partially cover both neck compartments
what forms the carotid sheath and where does it lie in the neck?
carotid sheath formed by contributions from the pretracheal, prevertebral, and investing layers of the deep cervical fascia it is situated between the vertebral and visceral compartments of the neck
what structures are contained within the carotid sheath?
common carotid artery (which branches into the internal and external carotid arteries) carotid body carotid sinus internal jugular vein vagus nerve glossopharyngeal nerve accessory nerve hypoglossal nerve
where does the common carotid artery branch?
at the upper corder of the thyroid cartilage
what is the course of the internal carotid artery and what does it supply?
no branches in the neck!! enters the skull through the carotid canal gives rise to the ophthalmic artery (supplies orbit, retina, part of nasal cavity and face) ends by branching into anterior and middle cerebral artery
what are the branches of the external carotid artery in the neck? where does the external carotid artery end?
6 branches in neck: Superior thyroid artery Ascending pharyngeal artery Lingual artery Facial artery Occipital artery Posterior auricular artery then ends posterior to mandible by dividing into a Maxillary artery and Superficial temporal artery **Some Aggressive Lovers Find Odd Positions More Stimulating
what does the superior thyroid artery supply and what does it give rise to?
thyroid gland (duh) gives rise to the superior laryngeal artery that passes through the thyrohyoid membrane to supply the laryngopharynx and larynx
where does the ascending pharyngeal artery course and what does it supply?
arises from posterior external carotid pharynx (obviously)
where does the lingual artery course and what does it supply?
passes deep to the mylohyoid tongue (lingual... tongue... k)
where does the facial artery course and what does it supply?
passes deep to the submandibular glands, crosses body of the mandible facial muscles and skin up to medial corner of eye (clearly these aren't that hard)
where does the occipital artery course and what does it supply?
crossed by the hypoglossal nerve posterior neck and posterior scalp (where your occipital bone and occipital sinus are)
what does the posterior auricular artery supply?
what of the terminal branches of the external carotid are larger?
where is the carotid body and what is its function?
bifurcation of common carotid artery chemoreceptor that monitors arterial levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
where is the carotid sinus and what is its function?
proximal part of the internal carotid artery baroreceptor that monitors arterial blood pressure **"sinus pressure"
what innervates the carotid body and carotid sinus?
glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves (convey signals back into CNS)
what is the baroreceptor reflex? disruption of the reflex results in what?
maintains blood pressure in response to changes in posture disruption of the reflex results in orthostatic hypotension- a decrease in BP when patient assumes an upright position
what is the chemoreceptor reflex?
maintains blood gases by adjusting respiration, cardiac output, and peripheral BP a decrease in oxygen tension (PO2) and an increase in carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) will result in an increase in respiration, HR, and peripheral BP
where does the internal jugular vein course and what does it receive blood from?
courses through the carotid sheath lateral to the common carotid artery formed inferior to the jugular foramen at the junction of the interior petrosal sinus and sigmoid sinus receives the facial, lingual, pharyngeal, and middle thyroid veins
where does the vagus nerve course?
through the length of the neck in the carotid sheath posterior to the internal jugular vein and common carotid artery
where do the glosspharyngeal, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves course?
pass through superior part of sheath to the pharynx, posterior triangle, and tongue, respectively
where does the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk lie is respect to the carotid sheath? what does it contain?
posterior and medial contains superior, middle, and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia