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Flashcards in Neck region Deck (31):

Borders of Carotid triangle

Sup: posterior belly og digastric
Medial: superiod belly of omohyoid
Lat: Sternocleido mastoid muscle


Content on carotid triangle

-Carotid sheath with:
-Internal jugular vein
-Common carotid a (bifurcates within triangle)+
carotid sinus with baroreceptors.
-Vagus n
-spinal accessory n
-Ansa cervicalis (sup. root)
-Deep cervical lymph nodes
-Hypoglossal n
(-Pharynx and larynx?)

(intermediate belly of omohyoid m. has extra insertion on carotid sheath to prevent collapsing of IJV during respiration.)


Borders of Submental triangle

Inferiorly – hyoid bone.
Medially – midline of the neck.
Laterally – anterior belly of the digastric
Base – Mylohyoid muscle


Content of submental triangle

-Submental lymp nodes
-Small vein which unite to form Anterior jugular vein.


Borders of Submandibular triangle

Superiorly – body of the mandible.
Anteriorly – (or medially?) anterior belly of the digastric m.
Posteriorly – posterior belly of the digastric muscle.
(but stylohyoid m is right there as well!)


Content of Submandibular triangle

-Submandibular gland
-Submandibular lymph nodes
-Fascial a & v pass through in triangle
(-Mylohyoid n
-Hypoglossal n)


Situation and borders of Muscular (Omotracheal) triangle

It is situated more inferiorly than the subdivisions and its a slightly ‘dubious’ triangle, in reality having four boundaries. Superiorly – hyoid bone.

Medially – imaginary midline of the neck.
Supero-laterally – superior belly of the omohyoid muscle.
Infero-laterally – inferior portion of the
sternocleidomastoid muscle


Content of Muscular (Omotracheal) triangle

-The Infrahyoid muscles:
(-The Pharynx)
-The thyroid,
-Parathyroid glands. (thyroid gland?)


how is the Posterior triangle of the neck divided?

The omohyoid muscle splits the posterior triangle of the neck into two:
1) The larger, superior part is termed the occipital triangle.

2) The inferior triangle is known as the subclavian triangle and contains the distal portion of the subclavian artery.


Which triangles are sub divisions of the anterior triangle of the neck?

-Submandibular triangle
-Submental triangle
-Carotid triangle
-Muscular triangle


Border of Occipital triangle

-Inferior belly of omohyoid m.
(and clavicle?)

Floor; -A number of vertebral muscles (covered by prevertebral fascia) form the floor of the posterior triangle:

Splenius capitis
Levator scapulae
Anterior, middle and posterior scalenes


Content of occipital triangle

-External jugular vein =>Within the posterior triangle, the
EJV pierces the investing layer of fascia and
empties into the subclavian vein.
-Tranverse cervical a
-spinal accessory n
-Trunks of brachial nerve plexus
-Poterior branchess of cervical nerve plexus
-Tranverse cervical chain of lymphnodes


Borders and content of Scalene triangle

Anterior: - Ant. Scalene => Phrenic n runs on ant border on
ant. scalene right outside triangle
Post: -Middle Scalene => long thoracic nerve (pierces?)
Middle scalene muscle
Inferior: -First rib => subclavian vein

Content: -Subclavian a
- Brachial plexus (cords)


Borders of Supraclavicular/Subclavian/Omoclavicular triangle

-Medial: Clavicular head of SCM
-Lateral: Inferior belly of OH m.
-Inferior: Clavicle


Content of Supraclavicular/Subclavian/Omoclavicular triangle

- Subclavian artery (and sometime vein)
-Suprascapular artery
-Suprascapular lymph nodes (may recieve metastais of
Gastric cc)


What make up the EJV?

Formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins.


Suprahyoid muscles

A group of four muscles, located superiorly to the hyoid bone of the neck. which elevate the hyoid bone => involved in swollowing.

-Arterial supply to these muscles is via branches of the facial artery, occipital artery and lingual artery


Superior root of deep ansa cervicalis

The superior root of the ansa cervicalis is formed from cervical spinal nerve 1 of the cervical plexus. These nerve fibers travel in the hypoglossal nerve before separating in the carotid triangle to form the superior root. The superior root goes around the occipital artery and then descends on the carotid sheath.
It sends off branches to the superior belly of the OH muscle, and the upper parts of the sternothyroid and sternohyoid muscles and is then joined by the inferior root.


inferior root of deep Ansa cervicalis

gives branches to:


Origin and innervation of Digastric:

Ant belly: originates from digastric fossa of mandible, inserts on common tendon of digastric
- derived from 1st pharyngeal arch) => innervated by Mylohyoid n, branch of mandibular nerve (CN V)
-pulls mandible forward and depresses it.

intermediate tendon: on minor cornu of hyoid bone.

Post. belly: Mastoid notch of temporal bone ---->
intermediate tendon of digastric.
-Derived from 2nd pharyngeal arch=> innervated by
facial nerve
-Draws back hyoid bone.


name the Suprahyoid muscles

they're all pharyngeal muscles except for geniohyoid.


Stylohyoid muscle

O: post. styloid process of temporal bone
I: body of hyoid bone ==> its splits/goes around the beginning of post. belly of digasstric.

Action: -elevates and retracts hyoid bone
- assists in lowering mandible
Innervation: facial n.



forms the floor or oral cavity
O: the mylohyoid line of the mandible
I: hyoid bone.
Actions: Elevates the hyoid bone and the floor of the
Innervation: Inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the
mandibular nerve (which is derived from the
trigeminal nerve)


Innervation infrahyoid muscles

all innervated by deep ansa but the Thyrohyoid muscle which is innervated by superficial ansa (C1 traveling with Hypoglossal until carotid triangle)


Innervations of suprahyoid muscles.

-Digastric ant. belly + mylohyoid muscle: mylohyoid n from V3
-Digastric post belly+ stylohyoid m. : facial n
-Geniohyoid Superior cervical ansa.


Borders of parotid nest

Post: SCM, Post. belly of digastric
Ant: Maseter, Ramus of mandible, medial pterygoid muscle
Medial: stylohyoid, styloglossus, styloid process, stylopharyngeus muscle. -> Ext.CA, IJV, ICA


What fascia makes up carotid sheath

pretracheal facscia of deep cervical facsia


Erb point

located 2-3 cm above clavicle and 1-2cm past the poterior border => ej klar kolla notes


which are the infra hyoid muscle?



which are the suprahyoid muscles?

-Digastric muscles


Name the deep ventral muscles of the neck

-Rectus capitis anterior
-Longus capitis
-Longus colli
all innervated by cervical plexus