Neo-Freudains and Psychodynamic Theorists Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neo-Freudains and Psychodynamic Theorists Deck (30):

Industry vs. inferiority

8–12 years)
Corresponds to the latency period
Develop skills and abilities to succeed in the world of work and contribute to society


Identity vs. identity confusion

Corresponds to the genital stage
Figure out who I am and what is important


Intimacy vs. isolation

(young adulthood)
Find an intimate life partner


Generativity vs. stagnation

(middle age)
Turn concern to the next generation or become passive


Integrity vs. despair

(old age)
Brought on by the prospect of death
Based on feelings about one’s life


Major contributions of Erikson’s theory

Psychological development is based on the structure of society
Life-span development
More emphasis on one’s capacity to negotiate existential crises/challenges


Object Relations Theory

Melanie Klein and D. W. Winnicott
Objects: emotionally important people
Object relations theory: the analysis of interpersonal relationships
We relate to others via the images of them in our minds
The images do not always match reality
Applies as well to our relationship to our self


Object Relations Theory: Four Principal Themes

Every relationship has elements of satisfaction and frustration, or pleasure and pain.
The mix of love and hate
Distinction between parts of the love object and the whole person
Breast vs. mother; wealth vs. whole person
The psyche is aware of and disturbed by these contradictory feelings


Object Relations Theory (facts)

Split of love objects into good and bad parts
May use neurotic defenses to ignore the bad
The false self: used to please others


Object Relations Theory: Transitional objects

source of comfort when the adult is not available; help the child face the world alone
used to bridge the gap between private fantasy and reality
Sentimental objects for adults


Object Relations Theory: Purpose of object relations therapy

Minimize discrepancies between true and false selves
Help the rational resources of the mind work through irrational defenses
To help the client see important people in his or her life the way they actually are: whole individuals with both good and bad parts
Must love always be mixed with frustration and resentment?


Current Psychoanalytic Research

Most research is done by academics, not practicing psychoanalysts
Some researchers do not realize that what they study is based on Freudian or neo-Freudian ideas
Independent and simultaneous mental processes
Unconscious mental processes


Current Psychoanalytic Research Part Two

Compromises among mental processes negotiated outside of consciousness
Self-defensive thoughts and self-deception
The influence of the past (especially childhood) on current functioning
The influence of sexual or aggressive wishes on thought, feeling, and behavior


Testing Psychoanalytic Hypotheses

The unconscious part of the mind can perceive things without the conscious mind’s awareness.
Most of what the mind does is unconscious



applying old patterns of behavior and emotions to new relationships


Based on evolutionary theory:

humans evolved in a risky environment and feared being along, which motivated the desire for protection from someone else who is interested in the person’s survival and well-being; desire is especially strong in infancy and early childhood


Two lessons from experiences with adult caregivers

reliability of attachment figure; whether one is the kind of person to whom attachment figures respond in a helpful way


John Bowlby

Saw attachment as the basis of love
Based on evolutionary theory
Desire for protection leads to attachments
Two lessons from experiences with adult caregivers: reliability of attachment figure; whether one is the kind of person to whom attachment figures respond in a helpful way


Attachment Theory

Based on idea of transference
Focuses on patterns of relationships with others that are consistently repeated with different partners throughout life


Mary Ainsworth

Developed the strange situation task
Look at reactions to mother leaving and returning to determine type of attachment


Types of attachment

Anxious ambivalent: vigilant about mother’s presence and become upset when she leaves
Caregivers are inconsistent
Adults: attempts to cling to others drives them away; obsessed with romantic partners; jealous


Developed the strange situation task:

child is briefly separated from, and then reunited with, the mother


Types of attachment: avoidant

not distressed when mother leaves and ignore her when she returns
Caregivers rebuff attempts for contact and reassurance
Adults: angry self-reliance and cold, distant attitude toward others; uninterested in romantic relationships; like to work alone


Types of attachment: Secure

greet mother happily when she returns
Easily soothed, actively explore environment
Adults: positive attitude toward relationships; tend to have long and stable relationships


Attachment patterns are self-fulfilling:

learned in childhood, reinforced across young adulthood


Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory

Attachment patterns are self-fulfilling
Moving from three types to two dimensions (anxiety and avoidance)
People high in anxiety and avoidance do not pay attention to signs of emotion from others


Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory Part Two

Evidence of unconscious priming of attachment figures: people responded faster to names of people with whom they were emotionally attached after a threatening subliminal prime than after a neutral prime; there was not a difference for names of people with whom they were not attached
The doctrine of opposites: too anxious or too avoidant is bad


Five neo-Freudian propositions that are firmly established and supported

Much of mental life is unconscious
The mind does many things at once and can be in conflict with itself
Events of childhood shape adult personality
Relationships formed with significant other people establish patterns that are repeated
Psychological development involves moving from an unregulated, immature, and self-centered state to a more regulated, mature state in which relationships become increasingly important


To prevent anxiety (supports the defense mechanism of denial):

When flashed on a screen, participants do not report recognizing dirty words but do recognize other words


Parallel distributed processing (PDP):

the mind does many different things at once and only some of this is conscious; conscious thoughts and behavior are a compromise of the unconscious processes