Flashcards in Assessments Part Two-Quiz Three Deck (23):
What is a consequence of everyday judgements of personality
•Appearances and first impressions may be mistaken and unfair, but they have effects, including opportunities for employment or friendships
•About 25% consider themselves shy; how do other people perceive them? Or, how might the opposite—self-assuredness—be perceived by others?
What is another consequence of everyday judgements of personality
•Intellectual expectancy effects (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968):
•Climate-expression of attitudes and emotion; •Feedback-more differentiated and responsive; •Input-more and more difficult material; •Output-extra opportunities for performance
What is an additional consequence of everyday judgements of personality
Social expectancy effects (Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid, 1977):
•self-fulfilling prophesy-behavior is influenced by how others expect us to act (and our perceptions of their expectations, which tend to be very
Jussim (1991): Where do expectancies generally come from?
Often (not always) based on experience, and so likely to be correct—they magnify or maintain
actual behavioral tendencies.
• Good looking people really are more socially skilled (on average)
But, expectancy effects are real outside contrived
situations, how strong is the question.
• Especially strong when held by more than one important person for a long period of time—effects accumulate and increase (e.g., alcohol use, gender
or racial prejudice)
What criteria can be used to assess accuracy? Two epistemological answers:
Constructivism and Critical realism
What is constructivism
the philosophical view that reality, as a concrete entity, does not exist and that only ideas or “constructions” of reality exist. The answer here is none; personality is a social construction so there are no
absolute or truly objective criteria.
What is critical realism
the philosophical view that the absence of perfect, infallible criteria for truth does not imply that all interpretations of reality are equally valid. We can reject some beliefs and criteria, and all information might be helpful. (But there will always be some degree of indeterminacy, and so uncertainty.)
Name three criteria for accuracy
Convergent Validation, Interjudge Agreement, and Behavioral prediction/predictive validity
Define Convergent Validation
the process of assembling diverse pieces of information that converge on a common conclusion
•The duck test
Define Interjudge Agreement
the degree to which two or more judges of the same person provide the same descriptions of personality
Define Behavioral Prediction/Predictive Validity
the degree to which a judgment can predict behavior
How are first impressions made?
Made rapidly, automatically and with little conscious thought. They are typically hard to change once formed. But are they accurate?
What are some validity factors based on the face?
Extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience based on sitting together without talking •Dominant vs. submissive and sexuality from looking at a person’s face
•Low vs. high agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness for composite faces of extreme scores
What are other visible signs of personality? (Part One of Four)
Extraversion: fashionable dress, stylish haircut, speaking in a loud voice
What are other visible signs of personality (Part Two of Four)
Openness and conscientiousness from bedrooms: Openness, variety of reading material; and, conscientiousness, bed made, neat overall
What are other visible signs of personality (Part Three of Four)
Musical preferences: inventive, imaginative, tolerant, and liberal people tend to like reflective, complex music; curious, risk-taking, and physically
attractive people tend to like aggressive and intense music
What are other visible signs of personality (Part Four of Four)
Handshakes: firmness is positively related to extraversion (E) and emotionally expressive and negatively related to shyness and anxiety
What are Moderators of Accuracy?
variables that change the correlation between a judgment and its criterion
Name an example of a moderator of accuracy
The good judge
•Early findings (pre-1955): depends on the context or trait being judged;
intelligent and conscientious (duh!)
What is some recent research in regards to moderators of accuracy?
For males: extraverted, well-adjusted, unconcerned with what others think of them
•For females: open, wide range of interests, value independence
•High in communion (interested in developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships); socially skilled, agreeable, adjusted; attributionally complex; judge others favorably
Personality judgments in daily life
affect the opportunities that people are given
Based on the four moderators of accuracy, it can be concluded that
information quality will be high in weak, unstructured, and emotionally arousing situations