Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (43):
What is the leading cause of death in Australia?
Most common cancers?
Prostate, colorectal, breast, melanoma and lung
Do cells have to divide to become cancerous?
What are carcinomas?
90 percent of cancers with epilthelial origin
Mutations occur during what phase?
During cell replication
Epithelial cells are capable of?
Dividing and some continuous, on the frontline requires multiple mutations to turn cancerous
What does tumour mean?
Where do benign tumours grown in?
In a capsule made of storms
What is a malignant tom our?
What is the stroma?
3 types of tissue?
Labile- continuously dividing epithelial, haempoietic stem cells
Stable (quiscent) do divide not continuous
Epithelial, smooth muscle
Permanent (non dividing) cardiac and skeletal myocytes, neuron
What is proliferation?
Dividing of cells
If you stress normal cells they can change what's this called?
Metaplasia reversible process means cells can adapt
Normals cells can adapt to
Metaplasia and hyperplasia
Can increase risk of mutation
Common site -cervix
What is dysplasia?
Pre cancerous change
What is hyperplasia?
Increase in cell number more likely for mutations
Mutations can lead to?
Dysplasia- abnormal cell how they look and genes
What is atypia and polymorphism?
Atypia- abnormal cells
Polymorphism- all abnormal cells are different
What is neoplasia?
New growth or tumour
Mutations can cause?
Permanent changes in DNA
Germ cells: transmitted to progeny-inherited diseases cancers
Somatic cells:not transmitted cancers congenital malformations
What are mutagens?
Cause damage directly through increasing oxidant production or reduce anti oxidant defences
Caused by IV alcohol genetics viruses
What is apoptosis?
Cell suicide programmed cell death can be triggered externally
Goal of cancer treatment?
To get cancerous
cells to undergo apoptosis
What is carcinogenesis?
Imitation of cancer formation
What are the four classes of normal regulatory genes targeted by genetic damage?
-Growth promoting proto-oncogenes
-growth inhibiting tumour suppressing genes
-genes that regulate apoptosis
-DNA repair genes
Do cancer cells ignore chemical signals?
What is angiogenesis?
Growth of new blood vessels
Benign -more organised
Cancer cells can
Break away base
Invade connective tissues
What is the Warburg effect?
Use glucose to generate energy
Proliferative tissues uses aerobic glycolysis- uses less oxidants produces more byproducts to make cell membranes
Mutations disrupt what pathways?
Cell cycle arrest
Accumulating genetic hits stages?
-Genetic instability-daughters cells have mutation
Characteristics of benign tumours?
Well differentiated-resemble starting cell
-homogenous (uniformity of cells)
-cytoplasmic ratio (1:4 or 1:6)
Characteristics of malignant cancers?
-Can potentially metastasise
-well differentiated or undifferentiated
-increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio (1:1)
Fast growing- area of
Necrosis, many mitotic cells
What is metastasises?
Cancer cells moving to another site via three routes:
-direct seeding-she'd cells into pleural cavity
Most common sites metastatic growth?
Naming of tumour is after?
Origin of cell
Types of connective tissue?
Premix for malignant tumours?
Most rare sarcoma?
Epithelial cells are named after their?
Cells that secrete
Exocrine-into a duct