Flashcards in Role And Function Of RT Deck (46):
What can cancer be exacerbated?
Smoking alcohol radiation genes
Can cannabais be useful for cancer treatment?
Where do tumours spread via?
Lymphatic and blood drainage
Produces multiple growths that can stop tissue
What is systematic treatment?
Chemotherapy that goes throughout the body
Why is surgery used for treatment of cancer?
To remove structure to avoid compression of vital organs
What are some different treatments for cancer?
Surgery chemotherapy immunotherapy
What is the aim of radiotherapy?
To kill tumour cells before they spread systematically
Reduce size of tumour and to help symptoms
How does hormonal therapy work?
Manipulate growth factors for tumours
Androgen for males
How does immunotherapy work?
Insertion of antibodies
What is palliative radiotherapy?
Improve quality of life not necessarily quantity
Is metastatic disease curable?
Does palliative treatment involve lower doses to larger volumes of tissue?
How does radiotherapy work?
Ionisation damages DNA or ionises into more damaging chemicals eg radicals
Can normal cells recover from DNA damage?
But cancerous cells can't when they try to replicate they die
How was cancer treated in the 1800s?
Radioactive sources were held next to the tumours
Had severe side effects
How is radiotherapy produced?
By a linear accelerator
More acceleration more energy
What is 4Mev energy used for?
Head and neck treatment
What is 6mv energy used for?
What is 10Mv or 18Mv energy used for?
What is kilovoltage energy used for?
Superficial and skin tumours
What is mega voltage therapy?
Produce High energy x-rays cannot rotate 360 degrees due to cables
What is brachytherapy?
Positioning radioactive sources near a tumour through cavities or openings in the body
Does brachytherapy give less dose to surrounding tissues?
Yes more targeted
What is tomotherapy?
Can be really accurate
High dose gradients can take longer
Is radiation therapy slice by slice which is a form of IMRT
What is IMRT
Where Mlcs shape the beam and you have different dose gradients
What do radiation therapists do?
Plan deliver RT
Safety and accuracy
Support and care
Education and research
Advocate for patient
What is the patient pathway: prescription?
Referral for RT
-Radiation oncologists decide optimal treatment prescribes dose energy and timing of course
-Patient is booked for imaging
What is the patient pathway: localisation?
Receive a CT
Images identify tumour and any critical structures
Used special software to illustrate the distribution of dose
What is treatment chosen based on?
Tumour control and normal tissue damage
What is treatment planning used for?
Decide how to direct radiation to the tumour
Ensure normal tissues don't receive too much dose
Ensure critical structures are safe
What is PET?
Inject a radioactive dye and will go through PET scanner and will give off high traces of metastatic spread
What is the patient pathway of treatment?
Explain process and potential side effect
Position patient correctly go to mm
What is an ITV
Internal target volume
Typical treatment times?
10-15 mins for 5-8 wks
Side effects of radiation therapy?
Temporary hair loss
Frequency of urination
Epilation depends on what?
The location if treating prostate it will not but brain treatment yes
Can you wash the treatment area?
Yes you can bath it no soap aqueous cream preferred
Can a patient emit radiation?
What is the aim of radical radiotherapy?
To cure the patient
What does radical radiotherapy involve
High doses to relatively small volumes of tissue
Requires complex planning and techniques
Is radical radiotherapy used in conjunction with other treatments?
For testicular cancer what gy is generally used?
What gy does the CSI generally receive?
Breast cancer is a combination of what treatments?
Surgery, Chemotherapy and RT