Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

Radiation therapy 1 > Neoplasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (58):
1

What is the leading cause of death in Australia?

Cancer

2

Most common cancers?

Prostate, colorectal, breast, melanoma and lung

3

Do cells have to divide to become cancerous?

Yes

4

What are carcinomas?

90 percent of cancers with epilthelial origin

5

Mutations occur during what phase?

During cell replication

6

Epithelial cells are capable of?

Dividing and some continuous, on the frontline requires multiple mutations to turn cancerous

7

What does tumour mean?

Swelling?

8

Where do benign tumours grown in?

In a capsule made of storms

9

What is a malignant tom our?

Potentially fatal

10

What is the stroma?

Connective tissue

11

3 types of tissue?

Labile- continuously dividing epithelial, haempoietic stem cells

Stable (quiscent) do divide not continuous
Epithelial, smooth muscle

Permanent (non dividing) cardiac and skeletal myocytes, neuron

12

What is proliferation?

Dividing of cells

13

If you stress normal cells they can change what's this called?

Metaplasia reversible process means cells can adapt

14

Normals cells can adapt to

Metaplasia and hyperplasia

15

Metaplasia can?

Can increase risk of mutation
Common site -cervix

16

What is dysplasia?

Pre cancerous change

17

What is hyperplasia?

Increase in cell number more likely for mutations

18

Mutations can lead to?

Dysplasia- abnormal cell how they look and genes

19

What is atypia and polymorphism?

Atypia- abnormal cells
Polymorphism- all abnormal cells are different

20

What is neoplasia?

New growth or tumour

21

Mutations can cause?

Permanent changes in DNA

Germ cells: transmitted to progeny-inherited diseases cancers
Somatic cells:not transmitted cancers congenital malformations

22

What are mutagens?

Cause damage directly through increasing oxidant production or reduce anti oxidant defences

Caused by IV alcohol genetics viruses

23

What is apoptosis?

Cell suicide programmed cell death can be triggered externally

24

Goal of cancer treatment?

To get cancerous
cells to undergo apoptosis

25

What is carcinogenesis?

Imitation of cancer formation

26

What are the four classes of normal regulatory genes targeted by genetic damage?

-Growth promoting proto-oncogenes
-growth inhibiting tumour suppressing genes
-genes that regulate apoptosis
-DNA repair genes

27

Do cancer cells ignore chemical signals?

Yes

28

What is angiogenesis?

Growth of new blood vessels
Benign -more organised
Malignant everywhere

29

Cancer cells can

Break away base
Membrane
Secrete enzymes
Invade connective tissues

30

What is the Warburg effect?

Use glucose to generate energy
Proliferative tissues uses aerobic glycolysis- uses less oxidants produces more byproducts to make cell membranes

31

Mutations disrupt what pathways?

Growth signals
Apoptosis
Cell cycle arrest
DNA repair

32

Accumulating genetic hits stages?

Normal cell
-DNA damage-apoptosis
-Genetic instability-daughters cells have mutation
-unregulated cell
Division
-invasive cancers

33

Characteristics of benign tumours?

Never metastasises
Well differentiated-resemble starting cell
-encapsulated
-homogenous (uniformity of cells)
-cytoplasmic ratio (1:4 or 1:6)
-slow growing

34

Characteristics of malignant cancers?

-Can potentially metastasise
-well differentiated or undifferentiated
-heterogenous
-infiltrative growth
-increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio (1:1)
Fast growing- area of
Necrosis, many mitotic cells

35

What is metastasises?

Cancer cells moving to another site via three routes:
-blood
-lymph
-direct seeding-she'd cells into pleural cavity

36

Most common sites metastatic growth?

Capillary bed
Lungs
Kidney
Brain
Bone

37

Naming of tumour is after?

Origin of cell

38

Types of connective tissue?

Fibrous tissue
Muscle
Cartilage
Bone
Fat
Endothelium

39

Premix for malignant tumours?

Sarc

40

Most rare sarcoma?

Osteosarcoma

41

Epithelial cells are named after their?

Growth pattern/characteristics

42

Glandular eptithelium?

Cells that secrete
Endocrine-into blood
Exocrine-into a duct

43

What is the mesothelial cells?

Not epithelial cells produce melanocytes

44

Two example of benign tumours ?

Mature ovarian teratoma
Meningioma

Germ cell tumours
In testes all tumours are malignant

45

Testicular tumours?

Immature teratoma
Seminoma

46

Types of malignant tumours?

Sarcomas
Carcinomas
Immature teratoma
Seminoma
Melanoma
Leukaemias
Mesothelioma
Gliomas

47

Process of parhogenesis?

Normal tissue
Multiple mutations
Malignant or benign- either stops there or continues

Benign
More mutations
Malignant

48

Another pathway of pathogenesis?

Normal tissue
Sustained stress
Metaplasia
Multiple mutations
Dysplasia
Further mutations
Malignant cancer

49

Pathogensis of melanoma?

Normal tissue
Multiple mutations
Malignant cancer

50

Pathogenesis for
Mesothelioma?

Normal tissue-genetic hits-malignant cancer

51

Pathogenesis of ovarian teratoma and leiomyoma?

Normal tissue - multiple mutations - benign tumours

52

Pathogenesis of colon?

Normal tissue- multiple mutations - benign tumour- further mutations- malignant cancer

53

Pathogenesis of the lung ad cervix?

Normal tissue - sustained stress - metaplasia - multiple mutations - dysplasia - further mutations - malignant cancer

54

Grading of cancer?

1-4 estimates how aggressive the cancer is varies for cancer type

55

Staging system?

TNM

T1-4 depends on size of tumour

N0-N3- number of lymph nodes

M0-M1- metastasises

56

Affect on host?

Location important
Hormones, obstruction,
Cancer cachexia

57

Treatments?

Surgery
Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy
Hormone therapy

58

Side effects on host?

Healthy cells lost-epithelial, immune
Mutations in surrounding cells-mesothelial, lymphoid