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Flashcards in neoplasia general Deck (70)
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1

Hallmarks of cancer

1. evasion of apoptosis
2. growth signal cell-sufficiency
3. anti-growth signal insensitivity
4. sustained angiogenesis
5. limitless replicative potential
6. tissue invasion
7. metastasis

2

neoplastic progression

normal cells --> dysplasia --> Ca in situ --> invasive Ca
--> metastasis

3

hyperplasia?

increase in cell numbers

4

normal epithelial cells - from basal to apical

differentiation

5

dysplasia?

abnormal (NON NEOPLASTIC)proliferation of cells with loss of size shape and orientation in comparison to normal tissue maturation --> commonly pre-neoplastic

6

dysplasia - mild vs severe

mild --> usually reversible
severe --> usually progress to Ca in situ

7

Carcinoma is situ (pre-invasive) - definition

1. neoplastic cells have not invaded intact basement membrane
2. neoplastic cells encompass entire thickness

8

Carcinoma is situ (pre-invasive) - histological characteristics

increased nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio and clumped chromatin
neoplastic cells encompass entire thickness

9

Invasive carcinoma - definition

cells have invaded basement membrane

10

invasive carcinoma - mechanism of invasion

1. using collagenase and hydrolase (metalloproteinases)
2. Cell-cell contacts lost by inactivation of E-cadherin

11

invasive carcinoma - invade secreting

collagenase and hydrolase (metalloproteinases)

12

invasive carcinoma - cell-cell contact lost by

inactivation of E-cadherin

13

metastasis - definition

spread of cancer cells to distant organs

14

theory of metastasis

seed and soil:
seed=tumor embolus
soil=target organ is often the first encountered capillary bed

15

hypertrophy vs hyperplasia

hypertrophy --> increase in size of cells
hyperplasia --> increase in number of cells

16

metplasia - definition

one adult cell type is replaced by another

17

metaplasia in often secondary to (risk factors)
and examples / fate

1. irritation (eg. Barret esophagus)
2. environmental exposure (eg. smoking-induced tracheal/bronchial squamous metaplasia)
fate: reversible is irritant is removed byt may undegro malignant transformation with persistent insult

18

neoplasia - definition

an uncontrolled and excessive clonal proliferation of cells --> can be benign or malignant

19

anaplasia - definition

loss of structural differentiation and function of cells RESEMBLING PRIMITIVE CELLS OF SAME TISSUE

20

anaplasia - may see

giant cells with single large nucleus or several nuclei

21

desmoplasia - definition and example

fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm
ex. linitis plastica in diffuse stomach cancer

22

tumor grade?

degree of cellular differentiation and mitotic activity on histology

23

tumor grade - numbers and meanings

1-4
1 = low grade (well differentiated)
4 = hig grade (poorly differentiated, anaplastic)

24

tumor stage?

degree of localization/spread based on site and size of 1ry lesion, spread to regional lymph nodes, presence of metastasis

25

tumor stage is based on .... findings

clinical (c) or pathology (p) findings

26

tumor stage - TNM?

T = Tumor size
N= Node involvement
M = Metastasis

27

TNM and prognosis

each TNM factor has independent prognostic value
M factor often most important

28

tumor grade vs stage according prognosis

stage almost always has more prognostic value than grade

29

epithelial origin malignancy
mesenchymal origin malignancy

carcinoma
sarcoma

30

carcinoma vs sarcoma according origin

carcinoma --> epithelial origin
sarcoma --> mesenchymal origin