3 Basic Functions of the Nervous System:
Which type of nerve has the following characteristics: Afferent neurons that Detect internal and external stimuli
Which type of nerve has the following characteristics: Processes information, or integrates – analyzing and storing some of information and makes decisions regarding appropriate responses – made up of interneurons, or associations
Which type of nerve has the following characteristics: Responds to integrated decisions Efferent neurons, carry information to cells in body
the nervous system can be broken down into what two main parts?
CNS & PNS
what is the saggital plane?
a vertical plane which passes from ventral (front) to dorsal (rear) dividing the body into right and left halves.
what is the coronal plane?
(also known as the frontal plane) is any vertical plane that divides the body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back) sections. It is one of the planes of the body used to describe the location of body parts in relation to each other.
what is the transverse plane?
(also called the horizontal plane, axial plane, or transaxial plane) is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal planes.
what are the functions of the spinal cord?
Contains motor and sensory nerve pathways that exit/enter the cord through nerve roots & spinal and peripheral nerves. Mediates reflex activity of the deep tendon reflexes from the spinal nerves
what are the 5 segments of the spinal cord?
C1-7, T1-12, L1-5, S1-5 & coccygeal.
Most lumbar punctures are performed at _______ vertebral interspace.
the PNS is further divided into.....
SNS – somatic nervous system
ANS – autonomic nervous system
ENS – enteric nervous system
name the 12 cranial nerves and their basic functions
CN I – Olfactory - smell CN II – Optic – visual acuity, visual fields CN III – Oculomotor – pupillary reactions, extraocular movments CN IV – Trochlear – extraocular movements CN V – Trigeminal – corneal reflexes, facial sensation, jaw movements, voice and speech CN VI – Abducens – extraocular movements CN VII – Facial – facial movements, voice and speech CN VIII – Vestibocochlear – hearing, balance CN IX – Glossopharyngeal – swallowing and rise of the palate, gag reflex CN X – Vagus – voice and speech, swallowing and rise of the palate, gag reflex CN XI – Accessory – shoulder and neck movements CN XII – Hypoglossal – tongue symmetry and position, voice and speech
there are how many pairs of spinal nerves?
31 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal
for each spinal nerve: Anterior (Ventral) root ______ Fibers Posterior (Dorsal) root ______ Fibers
describe the reflex arc
Sensory nerve fibers -> impulse to spinal cord via a peripheral nerve -> anterior horn where sensory fiber synapses with cell innervating the same muscle When the impulse crosses the neuromuscular junction, the muscle suddenly contracts -> completing the arc
what is the Babinski sign and what reflex is it testing?
dorsiflexion of the great toe with or without fanning of other toes plantar
what is a dermatome?
band of skin innervated by the sensory root of a single spinal nerve
what is the glascow coma scale and when is it often used?
Used a lot in trauma to evaluate Level of Consciousness – generally correlates well with severity of injury and outcome….15 is highest possible score with 3 being the lowest.
what are the diferent levels of consciousness?
Alert – awake and oriented Lethargy – patient will recognize you when you speak in a loud voice Obtundation – patient aroused with gentle shaking Stupor – patient aroused with painful stimuli Coma – patient not arousable with painful stimuli
what do you assess in a mental status exam?
know how to test each cranial nerve
CN I – identify familiar smells CN II – use snellen chart, visual fields CN III, IV, VI – pupil direct and consensual response to light CN V – motor is teeth clenching; sensory is done with sharp and dull alternating over branches of the nerve CN VII – patient smiles, frowns, wrinkles forehead, puffs cheeks CN VIII – whisper test, Weber and Renne CN IX, X – notice trachea remains midline with swallow, soft palate rises with uvula remaining midline CN XI – shoulder shrug and turn head against resistance CN XII – directed movements is right, left, up, down; tongue strength is pushing against side of cheek
“write” on patient’s hand with something blunt and they are to identify the number or letter you have written
identification of familiar objects in the patient’s hand
simultaneously touch 2 spots on the body and have patient point to location that was touched
identification of the location where you touch the patient’s skin briefly
what is ataxia?
poor coordination/movement instability
pain with flexion of hips and knees with flexion of the neck while patient is in supine position…..suggests meningeal inflammation
pain and increased resistance when straightening the knee of flexed leg while in supine position
which bones comprise the Axial skeleton?
skull bones, hyoid bone, ribs, breastbone, and bones of the backbone
which bones comprise the Appendicular skeleton?
bones of the upper and lower extremities, bones of the girdle
how many bones are in a normal human body?
what is the difference between active and passive ROM?
Active: the ROM that the patient is able to accomplish on their own
Passive: The ROM when the examiner manipulates the joint
if you think of more stuff you want to add, go for it. most of the stuff in this section is intuitive and hard to make up questions for
Grading of muscle strength:
No muscle contraction is seen or identified with palpation; paralysis
Grading of muscle strength
Muscle contraction is seen or identified with palpation, but it is insufficient to produce joint motion even with elimination of gravity
Grading of muscle strength
The muscle can move the joint it crosses through a fulll range of motion only if part is properly positioned so that the force of gravity is eliminated
The muscle can move the joint it crosses through a full range of motion against gravity but without any resistance
The muscle can move the joint it crosses through a full range of motion against moderate resistance
The muscle can move the joint it crosses through a full a range of motion, against gravity, and against full resistance applied by the examiner.
What are the three categories tested in the Glasgow coma evaluation