Nervous/Endocrine define Flashcards Preview

DVM 2 - 2 > Nervous/Endocrine define > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous/Endocrine define Deck (77):
1

Dysraphia

= an abnormal seam
= a general term used for abnormalities arising from defective closure of the neural tube or its subsequent separation from overlying ectoderm

2

Anencephaly

absence of the brain

3

Prosencephalic agenesis

failure of neural tube closure rostrally -> absence of the forebrain (prosencephalon) and structures derived from it (e.g. cerebral hemispheres and eyes)

4

exencephaly

the meninges, dorsal skull bones, skeletal muscles and skin fail to develop over the missing forebrain, so that the undifferentiated neuroectodermal tissue lies exposed or protrudes from the skull

5

meningocoele

dorsal midline defect in the skull through which protrude fluid-filled meninges sac

6

meningoencephalocoele

dorsal midline defect in the skull through which protrude brain within meninges sac

7

meningomyelocoele

dorsal protrusion of a skin-covered sac containing spinal cord within meninges through the defect

8

spina bifida

any abnormality of dorsal vertebral arch formation

9

myelodysplasia

malformation of the spinal cord

10

syringomyelia

a tubular fluid-filled cavity (syrinx) in the spinal cord

11

hydromyelia

dilation of the central spinal canal with excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

12

arthrogryposis

crooked joint

13

scoliosis

lateral deviation of the vertebral column

14

kyphosis

dorsal deviation of the vertebral column (hump-backed)

15

lordosis

ventral deviation of the vertebral column

16

torticollis

twisting of the cervical vertebral column across its long axis

17

Holoprosencephaly

a spectrum of forebrain (prosencephalon) malformations which typically include agenesis or severe hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs and tracts

18

cyclopia

there is a single large midline eye within a single orbit

19

microencephaly

an abnormally small (hypoplastic) brain

20

pachygyria

abnormally broad cerebrocortical gyri

21

microgyria

abnormally small and numerous cerebrocortical gyri

22

agyria/lissencephaly

lissencephaly = absence of cerebrocortical gyri

23

Hydranencephaly

lysis of brain tissue and subsequent phagocytosis -> a variable degree of cavitation of the cerebral hemispheres

24

Porencephaly

s a less severe form of cerebral lysis than hydranencephaly

25

Hydroencephalus

accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the cranial cavity - common

26

cerebellar hypoplasia

- incomplete development of the cerebellum is a common congenital (or early post-natal) malformation in domestic animals

27

cerebellar abiotrophy

premature or accelerated atrophy of a normally formed cerebellum

28

Lysosomal Storage Disorders

lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are conditions in which substrates derived from normal cell catabolism accumulate within lysosomes rather than being degraded by lysosomal enzymes

29

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

30

myelitis

inflammation of the spinal cord

31

encephalomyelitis

inflammation of the brain and spinal cord

32

ependymitis

inflammation of the ependyma

33

choroiditis

inflammation of the choroid plexus of the ventricles

34

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

35

leptomeningitis

inflammation of the leptomeninges

36

pachymeningitis

inflammation of the pachymeninges

37

Mydriasis

dilated pupil

38

Anisocoria

uneven pupil size as seen with unilateral lesions

39

enophthalmos

○ narrowing of the palpebral fissure due to loss of smooth muscle tone in the eyelids.

40

Ptosis

rotrusion of the third eyelid - due to lack of smooth muscle tone causing its retraction

41

Miosis

narrowing of the pupil due to failure of contraction of the pupillary dilator

42

anhydrosis

lack of sweating in most animals

43

nociception

- refers to the system that carries signals of damage; it is the physiological event that accompanies pain
- “Nociception is born in the dorsal horn, but we don’t call it pain till it reaches the brain”

44

Allodynia

centralised pain sensation following a normal non-painful stimulus

45

hyperalgesia

enhanced perception of pain

46

cerebral concussion

a clinical condition characterised by (usually) temporary loss of consciousness and reflex activity following sudden head injury

47

cerebral contusion

haemorrhage into the meninges and/or about superficial or deep cerebral blood vessels as a result of head trauma

48

cerebral laceration

physical tearing of brain tissue due to trauma

49

what is acute brain swelling (congestive brain swelling)

the swelling is due to increased blood volume within the blood vessels of the brain rather than the accumulation of extra-cellular or intra- cellular oedema fluid

50

excitotoxicity

hypoxia results in decrease ATP in neurons -> release glutamate -> excess release results in increase calcium into neurons -> further destruction of metabolism ->activation of catabolic enzymes -> neuronal death

51

stroke/ cerebrovascular accident

characterised by cerebral haemorrhage (from vascular tears) or infarction (focal ischaemic injury caused by vascular occlusion and reduced blood flow)

52

paresis

deficit of motor function

53

paraparesis

bilateral motor dysfunction of the pelvic limbs

54

paraplegia

loss of motor function to the pelvic limb

55

paralysis

complete loss of voluntary movement

56

hyperaesthesia

increased sensitivity of the skin

57

Nociception

perception of pain

58

ataxia

lack of coordination

59

mentation

degree of mental alertness

60

analgesia

abscence of the sense of pain

61

hypalgesia

decreased sense of pain

62

Hyperalgesia

increase sense of pain

63

nystagmus

when eyes move rapidly and uncontrollably

64

epilepsy

symptomatic, reactive, primaru (idopathic)

65

seizures

generalised - whole body affected

66

Chemosis

oedema swelling of the conjunctiva

67

hyphema

pooling of blood inside the anterior chamber of the eye

68

plegia

paralysis or absence of motor function due to neurological damage

69

paresis

weakness in muscle due to neurological damage

70

caudal fossa

the region of the brain behind the tentorium

71

Cranial fossa

the region of the brain in front of the tentorium

72

Tetraparesis/tetraplegia

- All four limbs weak or paralysed

73

Hemiparesis/Hemiplegia

- 2 limbs are weak or paralysed

74

General anaesthesia

a state of unconsciousness , produced by drugs, with absence of pain sensation over the entire body

75

Obtundation

depressed response to stimuli (intracranial disease

76

Dysphoria

inappropriate reaction to surrounding environment which may include hyperexcitability, vocalising inappropriately

77

Stupour

lack of response to all but noxious stimuli