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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (88):

What are the twelve cranial nerves?

CN I (olfactory)
CN II (optic)
CN III (oculomotor)
CN IV (trochlear)
CN V (trigeminal)
CN VI (abducens)
CN VII (facial)
CN VIII (vestibulococchlear)
CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
CN X (vagus)
CN XI (accessory)
CN XII (hypoglossal)


What is the function of the Olfactory Nerve (CN I)?

sense of smell


What is the function of the Optic Nerve (CN II)?



What is the function of the Oculomotor Nerve (CN III)?

- pupillary constriction
- opening the eye
- most EOMs


What is the function of the Trochlear Nerve (CN IV)?

inferior and medial movements of the eye


What is the function of the Trigeminal Nerve (CN V)?

- motor: temporal and masseter muscles, lateral pterygoids
- sensory: facial (ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions)


What is the function of the Abducens Nerve (CN VI)?

lateral deviation of the eye


What is the function of the Facial Nerve (CN VII)?

- motor: facial movements and expressions (closing eye and mouth)
- sensory: taste on the anterior 2/3 of tongue


What is the function of the Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII)?

- hearing (cochlear division)
- balance (vestibular division)


What is the function of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX)?

- motor: pharynx
- sensory: posterior portions of TM and ear canal, pharynx, posterior tongue (including taste), uvula


What is the function of the Vagus Nerve (CN X)?

- motor: palate, pharynx, larynx, uvula
- pharynx and larynx


What is the function of the Accessory Nerve (CN XI)?

- motor: SCM and upper portion of trapezius


What is the function of the Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII)?

- motor: tongue


What are the aspects of the Mental Status Examination (MSE)?

- appearance and behavior
- speech
- affect
- mental content
- mental function
- judgment
- insight
- suicidal and homicidal risks


What are the components of Appearance and Behavior in the MSE?

- level of consciousness
- posture and motor behavior
- dress, grooming and personal hygiene
- facial expression
- manner
- relationship to people and things


What are the components of Speech in the MSE?

- quantity: talkative vs silent
- rate: fast vs slow
- volume: loud vs soft
- articulation of words
- fluency: look for hesitancies, disturbed inflections (monotone), circumlocations (word substitutions)


What are the components of Affect in the MSE?

- observable, usually episodic, feeling or tone expressed through voice, facial expression, and demeanor


What are the components of Mental Content in the MSE?

- what pt thinks about
- included level of insight and judgment


What are the components of Mental Function in the MSE?

assessed by vocab, fund of info, abstract thinking, calculations, construction of objects that have 2 or 3 dimensions


What are the components of Judgment in the MSE?

- process of comparing and evaluating alternatives when deciding on a course of action
- reflects values that may or may not be based on reality and social conventions or norms


What are the components of Insight in the MSE?

- awareness that symptoms of disturbed behaviors are normal or abnormal
- ability of pt to understand and acknowledge their illness or situation


What are the components of Suicidal/homicidal Risks in the MSE?

- ask direct questions
- depression is twice as common in women and is a frequent complaint of chronic medical illness
- screen high-risk patients for early signs of depression that are often missed: low self-esteem, loss of pleasure in daily activities, sleep disorders, difficulty concentrating or making decisions


What are the levels of consciousness? (5)

- alert: pt able to open eyes, look at you, respond fully and appropriately
- lethargic: drowsy but can open eyes, look at examiner and respond; falls back to sleep easily
- obtunded: opens eyes and looks at you; offers confused responses, has lack of interest in the environment
- stuporous: wakens only with painful stimuli; verbal responses slow or absent; unresponsive unless stimuli is present
- comatose: unarousable to any stimuli; GCS


What is decorticate posture?

- upper extremities flexed at elbows and held closely to body
- lower extremities internally rotated and extended
- thought to occur when brain stem is not inhibited by motor function of cerebral cortex


What is decerebrate posture?

- pts with extensive brain stem damage to pons and lesions that compress lower thalamus and midbrain
- rigid extension
- arms fully extended, forearms pronated, wrists/fingers flexed
- jaw clenched, neck extended, back may be arched
- feet plantar flexed
- may occur spontaneously, intermittently, or in response to stimuli


What is aphasia?

- disorder in producing/understanding speech
- causes: lesions in dominant cerebral hemisphere (L)
- Broca's aphasia: (expressive) nonfluent, slow, articulation is impaired but meaningful (with nouns, transitive verbs, important adjs)
- Wernicke's: (receptive) fluent, rapid, articulation good but sentences lack meaning; words malformed/invented


What is dysarthria?

- difficulty speaking due to abnormalities of oral and facial muscles that produce speech
- words may be nasal, slurred, or indistinct
- causes: motor lesions of the central or peripheral nervous system, parkinsonism, cerebellar disease


What are paraphasias?

words are malformed, wrong, or invented


How do you test for aphasia?

- word comprehension: one-staged and two-staged commands
- repetition: repeat phrase of one-syllable words
- naming
- reading comprehension
- writing


What is circumstantiality?

- speech characterized by indirection and delay in reaching the point due to unnecessary detail
- components have meaningful connection
- pts with obsessions


What is derailment?

- shifting from subject to others that are unrelated/related only obliquely without realizing subjects have no connection
- schizophrenia, manic episodes, psychosis


What is a flight of ideas?

- continuous flow of accelerated speech
- changing abruptly from topic to topic
- plays on words, distracting stimuli, no progress to sensible conversation
- manic episodes


What are neologisms?

- invented/distorted words or words with new/highly idiosyncratic meanings
- schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, aphasia


What is blocking?

- interruption of speech midsentence/before completion of an idea
- losing a thought
- profound in schizophrenia


What is confabulation?

- fabrication of facts/events in response to questions in order to fill in gaps in impaired memory
- Korsakoff's syndrome from alcoholism


What is perseveration?

- repetition of words/ideas
- schizophrenia/psychosis or traumatic injuries


What is echolalia?

- repeating words/phrases of someone else
- manic episodes and schizophrenia


What is clanging?

- choosing word based on sound rather than meaning
- usually rhyming/punning
- schizophrenia and manic episodes


How can you assess Thought Content?

- assess during interview
- follow leads suggested by patient instead of asking stereotyped list of questions
- abnormalities include: compulsions, obsessions, phobias, anxieties, feelings of unreality, feelings of depersonalization, delusion (of persecution, grandeur, jealousy, reference, being controlled, somatic, systematized)


How can you assess Mental Function?

- orientation (name, date, place)
- attention
- digit spans (serial 7s or spell world backwards)
- remote memory
- recent memory
- new learning ability (repeat 3 words)
- higher cognitive functions including vocabulary, calculating ability, abstract thinking (proverb), and constructional ability (draw a clock)


How can you assess Judgment?

- ability to evaluate situation and form appropriate response
- assess by asking patient to propose solution to a current problem (how will you get to your follow-up appointment) and/or ask to propose solution to a hypothetical problem


How do you test the Olfactory Nerve (CN I)?

- test each nostril with a familiar, non-irritating odor


How do you test the Optic Nerve (CN II)?

- test visual acuity (confrontation)


How do you test the Optic Nerve (CN II) and Oculomotor Nerve (CN III)?

- inspect size and shape of pupils
- test pupillary reactions to light
- check near response


How do you test the Oculomotor Nerve (CN III), the Trochlear Nerve (CN IV), and the Abducens Nerve (VI)?

- test EOM in the six cardinal directions of gaze
- look for nystagmus, diplopia, and ptosis


How do you test the Trigeminal Nerve (CN V)?

- motor: palpate temporal and masseter muscles (ask patient to clench their teeth, ask pt to move jaw side to side)
- sensory: test for pain sensation and light touch in each of the 3 areas (ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular); corneal reflex


How do you test the Facial Nerve (CN VII)?

- motor limb of corneal reflex
- ask patient to raise both eyebrows,frown, close eyes tightly, smile, show both upper and lower teeth, puff out cheeks


How do you assess motor strength of the elbow?

- flexion (C5,6 - biceps)
- extensions (C6-8 - triceps)


How do you assess motor strength of the wrist?

- extension (C6-8, radial nerve)


How do you assess motor strength of the hand?

- test grip of hand (C7-8, T1)


How do you assess motor strength of the hip?

- adduction (L2-4, iliopsoas)
- abduction (L4-5, S1, gluteus medius and minimus)
- extension (S1 - gluteus maximus)


How do you assess motor strength of knees?

- flexion (L4-5, S1-2, hamstrings)


How do you assess motor strength of the foots?

- dorsiflexion (L4-5, tibialis anterior)
- plantar flexion (S1-gastrocnemius, soleus)


How do you assess cerebellar function?

- observe patient's performance in rapid alternating movements (finger tapping)
- point-to-point movements (finger to nose test, heel to chin test)
- gait and other related body movements (walk normally, heel to toe, on toes, on heels, hop in place, shallow knee bed, rise from sitting position)
- standing in specified ways (Romberg test, pronator drift)


How you assess sensory pathway integrity?

- test pain and temp (spinothalamic tracts), position and vibration (posterior/dorsal column), light touch (both), and discriminative sensations
- compare symmetric areas
- compare distal with proximal areas
- vary place of your testing
- if you detect sensory loss/hypersensitivity, map out its boundaries


What are the deep tendon reflexes?

- ankle (S1)
- knee (L2, 3, 4)
- brachioradialis/supinator (C5, 6)
- biceps (C5, 6)
- triceps (C6, 7)


What are the cutaneous stimulation reflexes?

- abdominal: upper (T8, 9, 10) and lower (T10, 11, 12)
- plantar responses (L5, S1)
- anal (S2, 3, 4)


How do you assess for discriminative sensations?

- stereognosis
- graphesthesia
- two point discrimination
- point localization
- extinction


How do you assess for stereognosis?

- place familiar object in the patient's hands while eyes closed
- ask them to identify it


How do you assess for graphestheisa?

- use pen to draw a # on patient's palm
- ask them to ID the number
- bilaterally


How do you assess for two point discrimination?

- use 2 ends of an open paper clip to finger pads in two places
- then touch 1 place at a time and ask patient if they feel 1 or 2 points each time


How do you assess point localization?

- touch point on patient's skin; ask pt to open eyes and point to place touched


How do you assess extinction?

- stimulate corresponding areas on both sides of the body simultaneously
- ask where pts feels your touch


What are the levels for Grading Muscle Strength (MRC Scale)?

- 0: no muscular contraction detected
- 1: barely detectable flicker or trace of contraction
- 2: active movement of body part with gravity eliminated
- 3: active movement against gravity
- 4: active movement against gravity and some resistance
- 5: active movement against full resistance without evident fatigue; normal muscle strength


What dysfunction is seen in Lower Motor Neuron damage?

- IPSILATERAL weakness and paralysis to the limbs
- muscle tone and reflexes are decreased or absent


What dysfunction is seen in Upper Motor Neuron Damage?

- above crossover in medulla, impairment develops on CONTRALATERAL side
- below crossover, impairment is IPSILATERAL side
- affected limb becomes weak or paralyzed, muscle tone is increased and deep tendon reflexes are exaggerated


What is the Babinski response?

- when testing plantar response (L5, S1), the big toe dorsiflexes (CNS lesion in corticospinal tract)


What is Clonus?

- test when reflexes seem hyperactive
- dorsiflex ankle and look to see if it maintains this position or if there are rhythmic oscillations (CNS disease)


What is Kernig's sign?

- flex pt's leg at both hip and knee and straighten knee
- positive sign indicated by pain and increased resistance to extending the knee


What is the Brudzinski Sign?

- as you flex neck (pt is passive), hips and knees also move (in pain)


What is the Doll's Eye Response?

- hold patient's upper eyelids open, turn head quickly
- eyes should turn toward opposite side otherwise the patient does not have an intact brainstem (used to test comatose patients)


What is the Romberg Sign?

- pt stands with feet together and closes eyes
- positive sign: swaying (dorsal column disease, cerebellar ataxia)


What is Pronator Drift?

- stand with arms straight forward, palms up, eyes closed
- look for drifting of either forearm (corticospinal tract lesion)


What is the Straight Leg Raise?

- raise pt's relaxed and straightened leg
- if there is a painful radiculopathy associated with muscle weakness and dermatomal sensory loss can indicate sciatic or herniated disc


What is aphonia?

- loss of voice that accompanies disease affecting larynx or its nerve supply
- causes: laryngitis, laryngeal tumors, unilateral vocal cord paralysis (CN X)


What are the types of seizure disorders (3)?

- partial seizures
- generalized seizures
- pseudoseizures


What are the clinical manifestations of Partial Seizures?

- jacksonian or other motor: tonic than clonic movements that may spread
- ANS symptoms (nausea, pallor, flushing, lightheadedness)
- sensory/psychiatric phenomena: numbness, tingling, auditory/olfactory hallucinations, anxiety or fear


What is the postictal state of Partial Seizures?

normal consciousness in all


What are the clinical manifestations of Generalized Seizures?

- tonic-clonic (grand mal): loses consciousness suddenly, body stiffens, breathing stop, cyanosis, clonic phase follows, breathing resumes with excessive salivation
- absence: sudden brief lapse of consciousness with momentary blinking, staring, movements of lips/hands, no falling
- myoclonic: sudden, brief, rapid jerks of trunk or limbs
- myoclonic atonic: sudden loss of consciousness with falling but no movements, injury may occur


What is the postictal state of Generalized Seizures?

- tonic-clonic: confusion, drowsiness, fatigue, headache, muscular aching, sometimes temporary persistance of bilateral neurologic deficits (hyperactive reflexes, Babinski responses, amnesia for seizure)
- absense: no aura recalled
- myoclonic: variable
- myoclonic atonic: prompt return to normal or brief period of confusion


What are Pseudoseizures?

- clinical manifestations: movements may have personally symbolic significance, do not follow neuroanatomic pattern, injury uncommon
- postictal state: variable


What are the involuntary movements that we need to know? (6)

- tremors
- oral-facial dyskinesias
- tics
- athetosis
- dystonia
- chorea


What are the types of tremors? (3)

- resting: slow, fine, pill-rolling (Parkinson's)
- postural: while maintaining a posture (hyperthyroidism, anxiety, fatigue, or can be benign)
- intention: absent at rest, appear with movement (cerebellar disorders, MS)


What are oral-facial dyskinesias?

- rhythmic, repetitive, bizarre movements of face, mouth, jaw, and tongue
- grimacing, pursing of lips, protrusion of tongue, opening and closing of mouth, deviation of jaw
- causes: long term psychotropic drugs, standing psychoses, elderly and edentulous persons


What are Tics?

- brief, repetitive, stereotyped, coordinated movements at irregular intervals
- causes: Tourette's, drugs (phenothiazines and amphetamines)


What is Athetosis?

- slower, more twisting and writhing than choreiform movements with larger amplitude
- usually of face and distal extremities
- causes: cerebral palsy


What is Dystonia?

- similar to athetoid movements but often involve larger portions of body (including trunk)
- causes: drugs (phenothiazines), primary torsion dystonia


What is Chorea?

- brief, rapid, jerky, irregular, unpredictable movements that occur at rest or interrupt normal coordinated movements
- seldom repeat themselves
- causes: Sydenham's chorea, Huntington's disease