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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (23)
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1

What are astrocytes?

Neuroglial cells within CNS. Provide structure

2

What are microglia?

Neuroglial cells within CNS. Immune response within brain

3

What are ependymal cells?

Neuroglial cells within CNS. Circulate CSF

4

What are oligodendrocytes?

Neuroglial cells within CNS. Wrap and insulate neutrons, increase speed of electrical conductivity

5

What are satellite cells?

Neuroglial cells within PNS. Provide structure

6

What are schwann cells?

Neuroglial cells within PNS. Increased speed of conductivity

7

What is the metabolic rate of neurons?

High! 120 g glucose per day.

8

How long do nerve cells live?

Extreme longevity, up to 100 years

9

Can neurons be replaced?

No - they are amitotic. But, if the axon is damaged (not cell body), they can regenerate.

10

What class is acetylcholine in? Nature of it? Where is it released?

Class: acetylcholine
Nature: Excitatory
Location: Neuromuscular junction - results in muscle contraction

11

What does excitatory mean?

Increases likelihood of post-synaptic neutron firing.

12

What class is norepinephrine in? Nature of it? Where is it released?

Class: biogenic amines
Nature: Excitatory (make you 'feel good')
Location: brain stem, limbic system, sympathetic ganglionic neurons

13

What class is dopamine in? Nature of it? Where is it released?

Class: biogenic amines
Nature: Excitatory (make you 'feel good')
Location: hypothalamus, limbic system, sympathetic ganglionic neurons

14

What drugs affect norepinephrine? How? What do they do?

Amphetamines and pseudophedrine (codral) enhance release of norepinephrine - 'pick you up'

Cocaine and antidepressants block the reuptake of norepinephrine - 'happy for longer'

15

What drugs affect dopamine? How? What do they do?

L-DOPA enhances release of dopamine - 'picks you up'

Cocaine and antidepressants block the reuptake of dopamine - 'happy for longer'

16

What class is GABA in? Nature of it? Where is it released? Effects?

Class: amino acids
Nature: Inhibitory (down regulates, depresses, relaxes)
Location: cortex, hypothalamus, spinal cord

17

What neurotransmitter/s is/are in biogenic amine class?

norepinephrine and dopamine

18

What neurotransmitter/s is/are in amino acid class?

GABA

19

What neurotransmitter/s is/are in peptide class?

endorphins

20

What class are endorphins in? Nature of it? Where is it released? Effects?

Class: peptides
Nature: Inhibitory (down regulates, depresses, relaxes)
Location: brain stem (prevents pain signals moving upwards - pain, marathon running)

21

What neurotransmitter/s is/are in purines class?

Adenosine
Adenosine triphosphate

22

What class is adenosine and adenosine triphosphate in?

Purines

23

NO and CO are in which class?

Gases and lipids