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ANATOMY II > Nervous system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous system Deck (43):
1

What are the nervous system's 3 main functions?

1) Stimulates movements vital to life.
2) Helps with the endocrine system, in maintaining homeostasis.
3) Allows the organisms to express unique human traits (emotions, etc).

2

Sensory functioning carries information (to/away) the brain and spinal cord via sensory (afferent/efferent) neurons.

to, afferent

3

Motor functioning carries information (to/away) the brain and spinal cord via motor (afferent/efferent) neurons.

away, efferent

4

What is the integrative function of the nervous system for? Which neurons are used?

Analyze and make decisions regarding appropriate responses.

Interneurons; connect/synapse with other neurons.

5

How does the brain and spinal cord control the center for the entire nervous system?

1 - By processing and integrating sensory information and coordinating responses to stimuli.

2 - By providing short term control over activities of other systems.

6

What is the peripheral nervous system?

The nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the CNS in the neural tissue that links the CNS with its sense organs and other systems.

7

The efferent (motor) portion of the PNS is subdivided into which 2 systems?

- Somatic Nervous System
- Autonomic Nervous System

8

What does the SNS control?

skeletal muscle contractions, voluntary and involuntary.

9

What is a significant difference between sensory and motor neurons of the SNS?

Sensory conveys info from cutaneous and special sense receptors primarily in the head, body wall and extremities.

Motor neurons from the CNS conduct impulses to skeletal muscles only.

10

What kind of control does the ANS have?

Control of VISCERAL functions

11

What specifically does the ANS regulate (what do the motor nerves conduct impulses to)?

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity.

12

Motor nerves of the ANS have 2 branches...

sympathetic and parasympathetic

13

What does the sympathetic nervous system do?

Mobilizes energy in the body for emergency and quick action.

14

Which nervous system is fight or flight?

Sympathetic

15

What is the parasympathetic nervous system's main function?

Conservation and restoration processes.

16

The interaction between PNS and SNS produces.....

Homeostasis.

17

Give action examples of the sympathetic system.

Heart beats faster, peripheral blood vessels dilate, increase of blood to extremities, inhibits digestive system

18

Give examples of the parasympathetic system.

Slow heart beat, decreases BP, functioning of digestive system.

19

What are the 2 main types of cells?

Neurons and neuroglia

20

What does the neuron do?

Structural and functional component of nervous system: conducting impuses to and from between CNS and PNS.

21

What is the general function of the neuroglia?

protect and support the nervous system

22

Are neuron bodies located in both the CNS and PNS?

Yes

23

What is a nuclei?

clusters of nerve cell bodies and their dendrites

24

A group of nuclei in the CNS in called what?

Center or nuclei

25

A group of nuclei in the CNS in called what?

ganglia

26

What compromises the grey matter?

Both centers/nuclei and ganglia

27

How man axons per neuron?

1

28

Difference between dendrite and axon?

Dendrite: receive and conduct impulses TO cell body.
Axon: AWAY from cell body.

29

What is the white matter of the neuron?

The myelin sheath

30

Where does a nerve exit the body of the neuron?

Axon hillock

31

What is the axon covered by... (not myelin)

Endoneurium

32

What is fasciculi?

Comprised of bundles of axons (nerve fibers)

33

What are fasciculi covered by?

Perineurium

34

What is the nerve surrounded by?

Epineurium

35

Which type of glial cell forms the basic structure of CNS(!!!)?

Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

36

What do the ependymal cells do?

Form linings of ventricles and central canal of spinal cord, some specialized to form the choroid plexus which produces CSF

37

Whats the other word for microglia?

Phagocytes

38

What do microglia/phagocytes do?

Get rid of dead skin, dead cells and debris. Clean nervous system!

39

What do the schwann cells do?

Make up the outer layer of the myelin sheath (neurilemma) in the PNS(!!!).

40

Excitability definition.

The ability of a nerve to respond to a stimulus and convert it into an impulse.

41

Conductibility definition.

The ability to transmit an impulse to another neuron or to tissue.

42

Explain synaptic cleft.

The junction of two neurons or one neuron with another structure (Ex. muscle) takes place at a space called synaptic cleft.

43

Explain synapse.

The function of transference of the neural impulse at the interneuron junction.