Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Year 7-8 Advance Science > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (24):
1

Central Nervous System

The part of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system

Made up of sensory and motor neutrons. It connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body and detects and responds to change

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Neurons

Nerve cell that carry electrical messages

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Nerves

A bundle of neurons

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Stimulus

Anything the body senses. They are detected by receptors

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Receptors

Organs or cells that detect changes in your external or internal environment. When a receptor detects a stimulus, it sends messages to the control centre. There are 4 receptors

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Photoreceptors

Detects light. Cones detect colour and rods detect black and white colours

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Mechanoreceptors

Detects mechanical forces such as pressure or vibration

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Chemoreceptors

Detect chemicals

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Thermoreceptors

Detects temperature

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Control centre

Receives messages from the receptors and uses this information to decide what the body needs to do. The control centres send signals to parts of the bodies called effectors. Eg. Brain

12

Effectors

Receives signals from the control centre. Eg. Glands, muscles

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Response

Eg. If it is cold outside, the muscles are the effectors and shivering is the response.

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Negative feedback

When the body acts against the stimulus

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Positive Feedback

When the body amplifies the stimulus. Not useful in homeostasis but useful in childbirth and blood clotting.

16

Endocrine system

Uses hormones such as adrenaline, oestrogen and testosterone. Response is slow and long lasting.

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Hypothalamus

Acts as a bridge between the endocrine system and nervous system.

18

Cell body

Main part of the neuron

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Dendrites

Makes connections to other cells and receives chemical messages from other neurons

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Axon

A cell that carries electrochemical messages along the cell

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Myelin sheath

Fat and protein that helps to speed the transmission of a electrochemical message

22

Nerve impulse

A type of electrochemical message that travels along an axon

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Motor neurons

Carries nerve impulses away from the central nervous system

24

Sensory neurons

Sends information back to the central nervous system