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Flashcards in Nervous system Deck (112)
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1
Q

congenital disorders result from what

A

failure of neural tube to form

2
Q

what neural tube defect is due to folic acid deficiency

when does it occur

A

spina bifida

1st trimester

3
Q

what presents with failure of the neural arch to close and with a tuft of hair (fauns beard) and a dimple in the region of the lumbar spine

A

spina bifida occulta

4
Q

what presents with failure of the neural arch to close with meninges herniating under the skin

A

spina bifida vera

5
Q

what is the more severe form of spina bifida

A

spina bifida vera

6
Q

spina bifida (occulta and vera) are associaed with elevated levels of what

A

alpha feto protein

7
Q

what refers to protrusion of meninges through the defect in the spinal cord

A

meningocele

8
Q

what refers to protrusion of meninges and spinal cord through a spinal column defect

A

myelomeningocele

9
Q

what refers to failure of the brain and cranial vault to develop

A

anencephaly

10
Q

accumulation of excessive CSF in the ventricles

A

hydrocephalus

11
Q

obstruction of CSF flow leading to accumulation in the ventricles

A

obstructive hydrocephalus

or non communicating type

12
Q

obstructive hydrocephalus is also called

A

non communicating type

13
Q

normal pressure hydrocephalus causes what

symptoms?

A

dilated ventricles in elderly

wet, wobbly, wacky
incontinence, ataxia, dementia

14
Q

what form of hydrocephalus causes reversible dementia

A

normal pressure hydrocephalus in the elderly

15
Q

herniation of cerebellar tonsils into foramen magnum

A

arnold chiari type 1

16
Q

herniation of cerebellar vermis and medulla into foramen magnum

A

arnold chiari type 2

17
Q

what is characterized by a large posteriior fossa with cystic dulation of 4th ventricle

A

dandy walker syndrome

18
Q

what is a non progressive motor disorder due to prenatal anoxia

A

cerebral palsy

19
Q

scissors gait is caused by what type of lesion

seen in what condition

A

UMN lesion

seen in cerebral palsy

20
Q

accumulation of blood under the dura layer

seen in what population

tear of what

A

subdural hematoma

elderly

veins

21
Q

accumulation of blood outside the dura layer

seen in what population

tear of what

A

extradural or epidural hematoma

adults

artery tear

22
Q

accumulation of blood under the arachnoid layer

seen in what population

tear of what

A

subarachnoid hemorrhage

anyone

berry aneurysm

23
Q

what is a saccular congenital swelling in a cerebral artery

A

berry aneurysm

24
Q

increase of berry aneurysms in what patients

A

adult polycystic disease

25
Q

what refers to damage to the part of the brain opposite to the site of injury

same side

A

opposite - contrecoup

same - coup

26
Q

what causes a sudden contralateral motor or sensory loss due to interrupted blood supply

A

cerebrovascular accident (stroke)

27
Q

what causes a sudden contralateral motor or sensory loss due to interrupted blood supply but occurs in brief episodes of neuro dysfunction

A

transient ischemic attack (mini stroke)

28
Q

how long do neurological symptoms last in a transient ischemic attack

A

less than 24 hours

mini stroke

29
Q

what refers to clot formed in atherosclerotic blood vessel

A

thrombus

30
Q

what refers to a mass of undissolved material in blood vessels that was brought by the blood

A

embolism

31
Q

what refers to accumulation of blood inside the brain

A

intracerebral hemorrhage

32
Q

the most commonly affected arteries in the brain are what

A

lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery

33
Q

what is infection of the brain

A

encephalitis

34
Q

what arthropods cause encephalitis

A

western equine
eastern equine
st louis

35
Q

meningitis is caused by what 3 things

A

neisseria meningitidis

e coli

hemophilus influenze

36
Q

what is a collection of bus in the brain lobe

A

brain abscess

37
Q

brain abscesses are caused by what 2 things

A

sinusitis

otitis media

38
Q

what is the human form of bovine spongiform encephalitis

A

creutzfeldt jakob disease

bovine = mad cow

39
Q

what is a prion disease associated with eating of brains of the dead in paua new guinea

A

kuru

40
Q

prions are what

A

infectious protein particles

41
Q

what is a enterovirus that causes flaccid paralysis due to destruction of anterior horn cells

A

poliomyelitis

42
Q

congenital syphilis is due to what

A

intrauterine infection

43
Q

what are the symptoms of congenital syphilis

A

interstitial keratitis - inflammation of cornea that leads to blindness
deafness
saddle nose
rhagades - linear fissures in the skin at corner of the mouth
hutchinsons teeth - notched central incissors
saber shin

44
Q

patient presents with interstitial keratitis, deafness, and saddle nose what is dx

A

congenital syphilis

45
Q

notched central incissors is associated with what

A

congenital syphilis

hutchinsons teeth

46
Q

what refers to diffuse cerebral atrophy, memory loss, hirano bodies, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles

A

alzheimers disease

47
Q

what is another name for parkinsons

A

paralysis agitans

48
Q

parkinsons disease affects what part of the brain

A

substantia nigra (pale colored)

49
Q

what is characterized by lewy bodies, resting tremors, mask face, and a festinating gait

A

parkinsons disease

50
Q

parkinsons have what going on with hormones

A

decrease dopamine

51
Q

what is another term for resting tremor seen in parkinsons

A

pill rolling tremor

52
Q

what is festinating gait

seen in what disease

A

gait that occurs with ever increasing speed

seen in parkinsons

53
Q

huntingtons chorea affects what part of the brain

A

basal ganglia - caudate

54
Q

huntingtons have what going on with hormones

A

decreased GABA

55
Q

what refers to chorea and mental deterioration in middle aged adults

A

huntingtons disease

56
Q

amylotropic lateral sclerosis is also called

A

lou gehrigs disease

57
Q

what is characterized by progressive upper and low motor neuron lesions in the lower and upper limbs

A

amylotropic lateral sclerosis

lou gehrigs disease

58
Q

what is a patchy autoimmune demyelination with some regeneration in the brain and spinal cord

A

multiple sclerosis

59
Q

MS is seen comonly in what population

A

younger females of northern european descent

60
Q

MS is more common in what type of climates

A

colder climates

61
Q

what disease is associated with charcots triad

what is the triad

A

MS

scanning speech
intention tremor
nystagmus

62
Q

what is due to thiamine deficiency seen in alcoholics and deficient diets

A

wernickes syndrome

63
Q

what is due to thiamine deficiency characterized by memory loss accompanied by confabulation (lying)

A

korsakoffs psychosis

64
Q

what is due to vitamin b12 deficiency and results in dorsal columns and spinothalamic tract damage

A

posterolateral sclerosis

combined systems disease

65
Q

what tracts are affected by posterolateral sclerosis

A

dorsal columns
spinothalamic

(combined systems disease)

66
Q

what is the most common brain tumor

A

metastases

from breast, renal, gut, airway, skin, anywhere

67
Q

what is the most common primary brain tumor

A

glioblastoma multiform

68
Q

what is the deadliest brain tumor

A

gliobastoma multiform

69
Q

what is the most common brain tumor in a child

A

medulloblastoma

70
Q

what is the second most common brain tumor

A

meningoma

71
Q

meningioma is __ lesion which may appear where

A

benign

falx cerebri

72
Q

psammoma bodies are seen in what brain tumor

A

benign meningioma

73
Q

what is a benign tumor in the internal acoustic meatus

A

acoustic neuroma

schwannoma

74
Q

patient presents with unilateral deafness and facial paralysis .. what is dx

A

acoustic neuroma

75
Q

what disease causes multiple neurofibromas in the skin, spinal cord, and brain with cafe au lait skin lesions and freckling in the groin and axilla (crowes sign)

A

von recklinghausens disease

76
Q

what are characteristics of von recklinghausens disease

A

mulitple neurofibromas in the skin, spinal cord, brain
cafe au lait skin lesion
crowes sign - freckling of groin and axilla

77
Q

what are the two types of von recklinghausens disease

A

type 1 neurofibromatosis - peripheral variety associated with pheochormocytoma

type 2 neurofibromatosis - central variety associated with bilateral acoustic neuroma

78
Q

what results in retardation, microcephaly, indistinct philtrum, and maxillary hypoplasia

A

fetal alcohol syndrome

79
Q

what results in cherry red skin color

A

carbon monoxide poisoning

80
Q

how does one get carbon monoxide poisoning

A

ventilated heaters in the winter

81
Q

carbon monoxide binds ___ to hemoglobin

A

irreversible

82
Q

what is characterized by seizures of unknown origin

A

epilepsy

83
Q

what is characterized by progressive spinocerebellar tract damage, ataxia, scoliosis, speech and heart problems

A

friedreichs ataxia

84
Q

what is a dilation of the central spinal cord called

A

syringomyelia

85
Q

what results in a cape like pattern loss of pain and temp but no loss of proprioception or vibration

A

syringomyelia

86
Q

where is syringomyelia located

A

dilation in central spinal cord

87
Q

what is transient injury to a nerve with rapid and complete recovery

A

neuropraxia

88
Q

what is an axon that is damaged but the sheath is still intact resulting in slow recovery as axon regernates

A

axonotmesis

89
Q

what is an axon and sheath that are completely transected that leads to permanent nerve damage without recovery

A

neurotmesis

90
Q

cant make ok sign

A

anterior interosseous syndrome

91
Q

sign of benediciton

A

pronator teres syndrome

92
Q

compression of superficial radial nerve

A

cheiralgia paresthetica

93
Q

compression of saphenous nerve

A

gonalgia paresthetica

94
Q

plumbism is due to what

A

lead poisoning

95
Q

minamato disease is due to what

A

mercury poisoning

96
Q

what occurs when you eat tuna fish in japan that results in peripheral neuropathy

A

minamato disease

mercury poisoning

97
Q

what causes peripheral neuropathy that damages the vasa nervora that presents as glove and stocking paresthesia

A

diabetic mellitus

caused by advanced glycated end products

98
Q

what is leprosy caused by

A

mycobacterium leprae

99
Q

what is caused by a bacteria that loves cool areas of the skin and peripheral nerves

A

leprosy

mycobacterium leprae

100
Q

what presents as claw hand, loss of outer third of eyebrows, and anesthetic hypopigmented skin

A

leprosy

101
Q

herpes zoster is caused by what infection

A

HHV 3

102
Q

what contains a prodrome of pain and hypersensitivty which presents with a dermatomal rash

A

herpes zoster

103
Q

what is an infectious demyelinating polyneuropathy due to viral infections or immunization

A

guillian barre syndrome

104
Q

what presents as progressive motor loss starting in legs and affects the diaphragm later causing respiratory problems

A

guillain barre syndrome

105
Q

what results from arrested neural crest migration to the gut with congenital agangliosides of the colon leading to chronic constipation

A

hirschsprungs disease

106
Q

achalasia is due to decreased function of what

A

myenteric plexus

107
Q

what causes dysphagia mainly for liquids

A

achalasia

108
Q

what is due to destruction of ganglionic cells that presents with dysphagia

A

megaesophagus

109
Q

megaesophagus is caused by what

A

trypansoma cruzi

chagas disease

110
Q

what is horners syndrome symptoms

A

PAM is horny
ptosis
anhydrosis
miosis

111
Q

horners sydrome is caused by destruction of the superior cervical ganglion that occurs in what condition

A

pancost tumors

112
Q

rewhat is refered to as sudecks atrophy or complex regional pain syndrome syndrome

A

reflex sympathetic dystrophy