NETWORK+ Terms O-P's Flashcards Preview

NETWORK+ Terms > NETWORK+ Terms O-P's > Flashcards

Flashcards in NETWORK+ Terms O-P's Deck (51):
1

The main
computer program that manages
and integrates all the applications
running on a computer. The OS
handles all interactions with the
processor.

OS (operating system)

2

A seven-layer
model created by the ISO to standardize
and explain the interactions
of networking protocols.

OSI (Open Systems Interconnect)
reference model

3

A
link-state routing protocol used on
TCP/IP networks. Compare with
distance-vector routing.

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

4

A tool used to locate problems
with optical media, such as
cable breaks.

OTDR

5

A packet refers to a unit of
data that travels in communication
networks.

packet

6

A firewall method
in which each packet that attempts
to pass through the firewall is examined
to determine its contents. The
packet is then allowed to pass, or it
is blocked, as appropriate.

packet filtering

7

A device or application
that enables data to be copied
from the network and analyzed. In
legitimate applications, it is a useful
network troubleshooting tool.

packet sniffer

8

A
network layout whereby devices
work together in close proximity to
share information and services, commonly
using technologies such as
Bluetooth or infrared.

PAN (personal area network)

9

A simple authentication
protocol in which the username and
password are sent to the remoteaccess
server in clear text, making it
possible for anyone listening to network
traffic to steal both. PAP typically
is used only when connecting
to older UNIX-based remote-access
servers that do not support any additional
authentication protocols.

PAP (Password Authentication
Protocol)

10

A hub that has no
power and therefore does not regenerate
the signals it receives.
Compare with active hub

passive hub

11

A set of characters used
with a username to authenticate a
user on a network and to provide the
user with rights and permissions to
files and resources.

password

12

A
variation on NAT (Network Address
Translation). With PAT, all systems on
the LAN are translated into the same
IP address, but with a different port
number assignment. See also NAT.

PAT (Port Address Translation)

13

A fix for a bug in a software
application. Patches can be downloaded
from the Internet to correct
errors or security problems in software
applications.

patch

14

A cable, normally
twisted pair, used to connect two
devices. Strictly speaking, a patch
cable is the cable that connects a
port on a hub or switch to the patch
panel, but today people commonly
use the term to refer to any cable
connection.

patch cable

15

A device in which the
cables used in coaxial or twisted-pair
networks converge and are connected.
The patch panel is usually in a
central location.

patch panel

16

A network
environment that does not
have dedicated servers, where communication
occurs between similarly
capable network nodes that act as
both clients and servers.

peer-to-peer networking

17

Authorization provided
to users that allows them to
access objects on a network.
Network administrators generally
assign permissions. Permissions are
slightly different from but often
used with rights.

permissions

18

The MAC
address on every NIC. The physical
address is applied to a NIC by the
manufacturer. Except for rare occurrences,
it is never changed.

physical address

19

Layer 1 of the OSI
model, where all physical connectivity
is defined.

physical layer

20

A diagram
that displays the physical layout
of a network including placement
of systems and all network
cabling.

physical network diagram

21

The actual
physical layout of the network.
Common physical topologies
include star, bus, and ring. Compare
with logical topology

physical topology

22

A TCP/IP stack utility that
works with ICMP and that uses
echo requests and replies to test
connectivity to other systems

ping

23

A
collection of software, standards,
and policies combined to enable
users from the Internet or other
unsecured public networks to
securely exchange data. PKI uses a
public and private cryptographic key
pair obtained and shared through a
trusted authority.

PKI (Public Key Infrastructure)

24

The space between the
structural ceiling and a drop-down
ceiling. It is commonly used for
heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
systems and to run network
cables.

plenum

25

An architecture
designed to enable the operating
system to detect hardware devices
and for the driver to be automatically
loaded and configured.

plug and play

26

A
technology that enables electrical
power to be transmitted over twisted-
pair Ethernet cable. The power
is transferred, along with data, to
provide power to remote devices.

PoE (Power over Ethernet)

27

A wireless
connection designed to link
multiple wired networks. Signals in
point-to-multipoint networks travel
from a central node such as a base
station of a cellular system, an access
point of a WLAN, or a satellite.

point-to-multipoint (PtMP)

28

Refers to a
wireless topology configuration. It
identifies the communication link
from one node directly to one other
node. Wireless point-to-point systems
are often used in wireless backbone
systems such as microwave
relay communications, or as a
replacement for a single wired communication
cable.

point-to-point (PtP)

29

Policies
refer to an organization’s documented
rules regarding what is to be
done, or not done, and why.
Network procedures differ from
policies in that they identify the way
in which tasks are to be performed.

policies and procedures

30

The media access method
for transmitting data in which a
controlling device is used to contact
each node to determine whether it
has data to send

polling

31

A protocol that is part of the
TCP/IP suite used to retrieve mail
stored on a remote server. The most
commonly used version of POP is
POP3. POP is an application layer
protocol.

POP3 (Post Office Protocol version
3)

32

In physical networking terms,
a pathway on a networking device
that enables other devices to be connected.
In software terms, a port is
the entry point into an application, a
system, or a protocol stack.

port

33

A process by which
two ports on a device, such as a
switch, are configured to receive the
same information. Port mirroring is
useful in troubleshooting scenarios.

port mirroring

34

The current analog public telephone
system. See also PSTN.

POTS (plain old telephone system)

35

A
common dialup networking protocol
that includes provisions for security
and protocol negotiation. Provides
host-to-network and switch-toswitch
connections for one or more
user sessions.

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

36

An Internet connection
authentication protocol that uses two
separate technologies, Ethernet and
PPP, to provide a method for multiple
users to share a common Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL), cable
modem, or wireless connection to
the Internet.

PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over
Ethernet)

37

A protocol that encapsulates
private network data in IP packets.
These packets are transmitted
over synchronous and asynchronous
circuits to hide the Internet’s underlying
routing and switching infrastructure
from both senders and
receivers.

PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling
Protocol)

38

Layer 6 of the
OSI model, which prepares information
to be used by the application
layer.

presentation layer

39

A
high-level network interface standard
for use with ISDN. PRI is defined as
having a rate of 1.544Mbps, and it
consists of a single 64Kbps D channel
plus 23 T1 B channels for voice
or data. See also BRI and ISDN.

PRI (Primary Rate Interface)

40

The DNS
server that offers zone data from files
stored locally on the machine.

primary name server

41

A network to
which access is limited, restricted, or
controlled. Most corporate networks
are private networks. Compare with
public network.

private network

42

A standard or specification
created by a single manufacturer,
vendor, or other private enterprise.

proprietary

43

A set of rules or standards
that control data transmission and
other interactions between networks,
computers, peripheral devices, and
operating systems.

protocol

44

Protocol analyzers
can be hardware- or software-based
with their primary function being to
analyze network protocols such as
TCP, UPD, HTTP, FTP and more.

protocol analyzer

45

A device, application, or
service that acts as an intermediary
between two hosts on a network,
eliminating the capability for direct
communication.

proxy

46

A server that acts as a
go-between for a workstation and
the Internet. A proxy server typically
provides an increased level of security,
caching, NAT, and administrative
control.

proxy server

47

A term that refers to all
the telephone networks and services
in the world. The same as POTS,
PSTN refers to the world’s collection
of interconnected public telephone
networks that are both commercial-
and government-owned. All
the PSTN is digital, except the connection
between local exchanges and
customers (which is called the local
loop or last mile), which remains
analog.

PSTN (public switched telephone
network)

48

A network, such as
the Internet, to which anyone can
connect with the most minimal of
restrictions. Compare with private
network.

public network

49

A device used
to connect network cables from
equipment closets or rooms to other
parts of a building. Connections to
networking equipment such as hubs
or switches are established from the
punchdown block. Also used in
telecommunications wiring to
distribute phone cables to their
respective locations throughout the
building.

punchdown block

50

A hand tool that
enables the connection of twistedpair
wires to wiring equipment such
as a patch panel.

punchdown tool

51

A
permanent dedicated virtual link
shared in a Frame Relay network,
replacing a hardwired dedicated
end-to-end line.

PVC (permanent virtual circuit)