Flashcards in Networking and internetworking Deck (42):
- A network that is connected over a large geographical area.
- Networking equipment and cables are usually not owned by the organisation but leased from large Telecom businesses.
- Networking equipment in this network is usually owned and maintained by the organisation.
- A network that is connected in one building or one site.
- A device in a network that holds information about IP addresses of computers in the network or other networks.
- A device that can direct data packets around a network in the most efficient way.
- A software process that processes and responds to the request from a client process
- A software process that initiates a request from a server
- A unique identifier assigned to network interfaces such as NIC
- A 48 bit hardware address that has a flat structure comprising of a unique manufacture ID and unique serial number of the device.
- This address can be used by routers to make decisions on which network packets are to be sent out next.
- A 32 bit address that has a logical structure compromising of a network ID and Host ID.
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What is meant by the internet?
A global network of linked computers and routers using unique IP addresses and TCP/ IP protocol.
People occasionally think that the World Wide Web is the same as the internet. End the confusion y writing below the differences between the two.
WWW: A system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the internet.
A computer has an IP address of 22.214.171.124
a) What is an IP address and why is it used?
A unique address that identifies a device on a network 32 bits e.g. 192.168.168.5
Routers make decisions where packets are going to be directed to based on the IP address.
b) Explain in more detail how an IP address is structured?
A 32 bit address that has a logical structure containing network ID and a host ID.
c) Explain what is meant by a datagram. Describe how a datagram is made up and how it is used.
Group of bits containing source/ destination address error control bits, control bits and data payload.
- Consists of data package, data payload/ contains header/ footer
- Data payload is encapsulated with information as it goes through the TCP/ IP stack.
d) Routers are used in computer/ networks. Explain what is meant by a router and describe the function of a router in a computer network.
Router: device that connects networks that use the same protocol
-directs data packets through the network based on their IP address
- They use routing tables that list all the network IP addresses of networks the router is connected to. Therefore router can make decisions; look up/ find certain IP addresses.
Definition of protocol
A standard set of rules to ensure the proper transmission of data between devices.
Explain why protocols are so important in communication systems
When data is split up and reassembled it must be in a way that is universally agreed. All devices are programmed with a set of rules to follow so manufactures can make compatible devices.
- Application layer: Applications
- Transport layer: TCP, UDP
- Network layer: IP
- Data link layer: MAC, Ethernet, FDDI, ISDN
- Physical layer: Cable, Fibreglass
Host sun --- Data transfer--- Host earth
List of the names of different protocols
- HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (application)
- FTP: File Transfer Protocol (application)
- SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (application)
- IMAP: Internet Message Access Protocol (application)
- DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (application)
- WAP: Wireless Application Protocol (application)
Port number: 80
Transferring multimedia web pages over the internet
Port number: 21
Copying a file from one location to another over the internet
Port number: 25
Mail applications typically use SMTP only for sending email messages
Port number: 993
Transferring emails between computer systems via the internet
Port number: 67
A client / server protocol that automatically provides an Internet Protocol host with its IP address, subnet mask and default gateway.
Port number: 2222
Allows wireless devices , such as mobile phones and radio transceivers to be used for Internet access
The basic communication protocol of the internet for transmitting data packets between different pieces of hardware.
Real-time video and audio streaming protocols are designed to handle occasional lost packets.
Provides source and destination IP address.
HTTP (name and layer)
Hyper text transfer protocol - application layer
FTP (name and layer)
File transfer protocol - application layer
SMTP (name and layer)
Simple mail transfer protocol - application layer
IMAP (name and layer)
Internet message access protocol - application layer
DHCP (name and layer)
Dynamic host configuration protocol - application layer
WAP (name and layer)
Wireless application protocol - application layer
TCP (name and layer)
Transmission control protocol - Transport layer
UDP (name and layer)
User datagram protocol - Transport layer
IP (name an layer)
Internet protocol - Network layer
What are the range of port numbers for: Well known ports
0 - 1023
What are the range of port numbers for:
Shockwave (port number 1626)
What are the range of port numbers for:
Rage 40152 - 65535
Why are server port numbers well-known and registered? (as opposed to client port numbers)
When programmers make applications they need to know what ports to communicated to the network application.