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Flashcards in Networking and internetworking Deck (21):


- A unique identifier assigned to network interfaces such as NIC
- A 48 bit hardware address that has a flat structure compromising of a unique manufacture ID and unique serial number for the device



- This address can be used by routers to make decisions on which network packets are to be sent to next
- A 32 bit address that has a logical structure compromising of a network ID and a Host ID.









- A device that can direct data packets around a network in the most efficient way.



- Networking equipment in this network is usually owned and maintained by the organisation
- A network that is connected in one building or one site.



- A software process that processes and responds to the request from a client process.
- A software process that initiates a request from a server.



- A network that is connected over a large geographical area
- Networking equipment and cables are usually not owned by the organisation but leased from large Telecom businesses





What is mean by the internet?

A global network of linked computers and routers using unique IP addresses and TCP/ IP protocol.


People occasionally think that the World Wide Web is the same as the internet. What are the differences between the two?

WWW: A system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the internet
Internet: cabling


A computer has an IP address of
What is an IP address and why is it used?

A unique address that identifies a device on a network 32 bits e.g.
Routers make decisions where packets are going to be directed to based on the IP address


Explain in more detail how an IP address is structured

A 32 bit address that has a logical structure compromising of network ID and a host ID.


Explain what is meant by a datagram. Describe how datagram is made up and how it is used.

- Group of bits containing source/destination address error control bits and data payload.
- Consists of data package, data payload
- Contains header and footer
- Data payload is encapsulated with information as it goes through the TCP/ IP stock


Routers are used in computer networks. Explain what is meant by a router ad describe the function of a router in a computer network.

Router: device that connects networks that use the same protocol
- directs data packets through the network based on their IP address
They use routing tables that list all the networks IP addresses of networks the router is connected to therefore, router can make decisions; look up/ find certain IP addresses


Explain why protocols are so important in communication systems

When data is split up and reassembled it must be in a way that is universally agreed. All devices are programmed with a set of rules to follow so manufacturers can make compatible devices.


Why are server ports numbers well-known and registered

When programmers make applications they need to know what ports to communicate to the network application.


Name the five layers o the TCP/IP protocol stack and explain the role of each layer

1. Application layer (HTTP) - identifies application used for this communication.
2. Transport layer (does a lot) - splits memory into packets
- Adds port number: 80
- sequence numbers
- error check line
- check digit
3. Network layer: IP - sender - receiver
- routers will inspect IP
4. Data link layer: physical interaction with medium (cable)
- MAC address is added to packet from NIC
5. Physical layer - coper cable


In the context of client-server model, what is
- a server?
- a client?

- A server: system that responds to requests from clients; processes the request and sends the result back
- A client: software that initiates a request of a service from a server


What is the difference between sockets and ports?

- Socket is a combination of host IP address and a port number. It forms a bidirectional communication path between the end processes or applications e.g.
- Port is an address for a software process e.g. 80


What is the difference between client and server ports?