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Flashcards in Neu 7 - Regions Of The Brain Deck (45):
1

What is the definition of Dysarthria ?

Motor inability to speak (movement deficit)

2

What type of aphasia develops a patient with lesion in broca area?

Nonfluent aphasia, intact comprehension and impaired repetition, difficulty forming complete sentences.

3

Patient with lesion in wernicke's area, what kind of aphasia development ?

Fluent aphasia, impaired comprehension and repetition, makes no sense.
Wernicke's = "What?"

4

What is the aphasia conduction?

Kind of aphasia characterized by poor repetition but fluent speech, intact comprehension, can be caused by damage to accurate fasciculus.

5

What is the global aphasia?

Nonfluent aphasia with impaired comprehension, arcuate fasciculus, Broca and Wernicke area affected.

6

What results on amygdala lesion?

Klüver-Bucy syndrome characterized by hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality (Disinhibited behavior). Also associated with HIV-1.

7

What results on Frontal lobe lesion?

Disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, judgment, may have reemergence of primitive reflexes.

8

What results on Nondominant parietal-temporal cortex lesion?

Hemispatial neglect syndrome (agnostic of the contralateral side of the world.

9

What results on Dominant parietal-temporal cortex lesion?

Gerstmann syndrome characterized by Agraphia (inability to write), acalculia (inability to calculate), finger agnosia (inability to distinguish fingers) and left-right disorientation.

10

What results on Reticular activating system (midbrain) lesion?

Reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (e.g., coma).

11

What results on Mammillary bodies lesion?

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome characterized by confusion, ophtalmoplegia, ataxia, memory loss (anterograde and retrograde amnesia), confabulation, personality changes.

12

What disease is associated with thiamine (B1) deficiency?

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. "Wernicke problems come in a CAN of beer: Confusion Ataxia Nystagmus".

13

What results on the basal ganglia lesion?

May result in tremor at rest, chorea, athetosis.
Parkinson disease (Hypokinesis) and Huntington disease (Hyperkinesis).

14

What results on cerebellar hemisphere lesion?

Intention tremor, limb ataxia, loss of balance. Fall toward side of lesion.

15

What results on cerebellar vermis lesion?

Truncal ataxia, dysarthria. "Vermis is centrally located - affects central body"

16

What results on subthalamic nucleus lesion?

Contralateral heminallismus.

17

What results on Hippocampus lesion?

Anterograde amnesia-inability to make new memories.

18

What results on paramedian pontine reticular formation lesion?

Eyes look away from side of lesion.

19

What results on superior colliculi lesion?

Paralysis of upward gaze. Parinaud's syndrome.

20

How can be symptoms of the stroke in the Middle Cerebral Artery stroke?

Contralateral paralysis: upper limb and face. Contralateral loss of sensation: upper limb and face. Aphasia if in dominant (usually left) hemisphere. Hemineglect if lesion affects nondominant (usually right) side.

21

How can be symptoms of the stroke in the Anterior Cerebral Artery stroke?

Contralateral paralysis- lower limb. Contralateral loss of sensation-lower limb.

22

How can be symptoms of the stroke in the Lenticulo-Striate Artery stroke?

Contralateral hemiparesis/hemiplegia. Common location of lacunar infarcts, 2nd to unmanaged hypertension.

23

How can be symptoms of the stroke in the Anterior Spinal Artery stroke?

Contralateral hemiparesis- upper and lower limbs. Decreases Contralateral proprioception. Ipsilateral hypoglossal dysfunction (tongue deviates ipsilaterally). Stroke commonly bilateral.

24

Medial medullary syndrome

Caused by infarct of paramedian branches of ASA and vertebral arteries.

25

How can be symptoms of the stroke in the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery stroke?

[Don't pick a Horse that can't eat] Vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus, dysphagia, hoarseness, impaired gag reflex, Ipsilateral Horner syndrome. Lateral Medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome: nucleus ambiguous effects are specific to PICA lesion.

26

What is Aphasia?

Higher-order inability to speak (language deficit).

27

How can be symptoms of the stroke in the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery stroke?

Vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus. Paralysis of face, decrease lacrimation, salivation, decreases taste 2/3 of tongue.

28

What is Lateral pontine syndrome?

[Facial droop means AICA's pooped] Facial nucleus effects are specific to AICA lesions.

29

What are the symptoms of a Posterior Cerebral Artery stroke?

Contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing.

30

What are the symptoms of a Basilar Artery stroke?

[Locked-in syndrome] Preserved consciousness and blinking, quadriplegia, loss of voluntary facial, mouth, and tongue movements.

31

How can be symptoms of the stroke in the Anterior Communicating Artery stroke?

Visual field defects. Lesions are typically aneurysms, not strokes.

32

How can be symptoms of the stroke in the Posterior Communicating Artery stroke?

CN III palsy- eye is "down and out" with ptosis and mydriasis. Lesions are typically aneurysms, not strokes.

33

A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for Hemispatial neglect syndrome?

Non-dominant parietal lobe.

34

A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for poor repetition?

Arcuate fasciculus.

35

A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for poor comprehension?

Wernicke's area.

36

A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for poor vocal expression?

Broca's area.

37

A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for personality changes?

Frontal lobe.

38

A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for Dysarthria?

Cerebellar vermis.

39

A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for Agraphia and Acalculia?

Dominant parietal lobe

40

A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior?

Kleuver-Bucy syndrome (Bilateral Amygdala lesion).

41

What typically is the cause of a lesion to the mammillary bodies?

Thiamine deficiency.

42

What is the most feared consequence of carotid artery stenosis?

Rupture atherosclerotic carotid damage, Thromboembolism to the brain and ischemia or embolic stroke.

43

What artery is damaged with Broca or Wernicke aphasia?

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA).

44

What artery is damaged with Unilateral lower extremity sensory and/or motor loss.

Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA).

45

What artery is damaged with unitlateral facial and arm sensory and/or motor loss?

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA).