Flashcards in Neu 1 - Organization Of The Brain Deck (50):
What tumor marker is used in Glioblastoma ?
GFAP (Glio Fibrillary Acid Protein) increased.
Which cell is phagocytic, activates in response to tissue damage, and also form multinucleated cells in CNS during HIV-Infected microglia?
What is the function of the Astrocytes?
Physical support, repair, K+ metabolism, Reactive gliosis in response to neural injury.
What structure is affected in Guillain-Barré syndrome?
What type of tumor is associated with internal acoustic meatus, and is it bilateral is associated with neurofibromatosis type 2?
Acoustic Neuroma, also is a type of schwannoma.
What do Schwann cells do?
Each Schwann cell myelinated only one axon, also promote axonal regeneration.
Which part of the neuroglia is destroyed in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?
What do Oligodendrocyte do?
Myelinated axons of neurons in CNS. Predominant type of glial cell in white matter.
Which cells have "Fried egg" appearance histologically injured in Multiple Sclerosis?
What kind of conduction have Schwann cells?
High conduction velocity via saltatory conduction at the node of Ranvier, where there is a high concentration of Na+ channels.
Which is the neurotransmitter that is increased in anxiety and mania but decreased in depression?
Where is the location of synthesis of the norepinephrine?
Locus ceruleus, reticular formation.
Neurotransmitter: increased in Hintington disease and decreased in Parkinson disease and depression.
Where is the location for dopamine synthesis ?
Ventral tegmentum and substantial infra pars compacta (midbrain).
What I the level of serum serotonin in Anxiety and Depression?
There is decreased in both.
At the Raphe nuclei is the synthesis for which neurotransmitter?
What type of changes can you find in acetylcholine levels in the following diseases? A)Parkinson B)Alzheimer C)Huntington.
Which is the neurotransmitter that is synthesized in the Basal nucleus of Meynert?
Which is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and is synthesized in Nucleus accumbens?
GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) also is decreased in anxiety and Huntington disease.
Which are the 3 structures formed the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)?
1)Tight junction between nonfenestrated capillary endothelial cells. 2)Basement membrane. 3)Astrocyte foot processes.
What is the function of the BBB?
Prevents circulating blood substance (e.g., bacteria, drugs) from reaching the CSF/CNS.
Which is the effect in the BBB during a infarction and/or neoplasm?
Destroys endothelial cell tight junction and that produce Vasogenic edema.
Which are the substance that cross slowly by carried-mediated transport mechanisms the BBB?
Glucose and amino acids
Which are the substances that cross rapidly via diffusion the BBB?
What diuretic is commonly given to decrease intracranial pressure?
Which is the inhibitory neurotransmitter of the spinal cord ?
Which is the excitatory neurotransmitter of the CNS?
Which structures conformed the Reticular Activating System (RAS)?
Reticular formation, Locus ceruleus and Raphe nuclei.
What does the Reticular activating system control?
Consciousness, wakefulness, attentiveness, at major RAS function major Attentiveness, at RAS lesion causes coma.
What CNS cell originates from the Mesoderm?
Which structures derived from Neuroectoderm?
Neurons, Ependymal cells, Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes and neural crest cells (PNS neurons and Schwann cells).
What are the 4 major dopaminergic pathways?
1)Mesocortical pathway. 2)Mesolimbic pathway. 3)Nigrostriatal pathway. 4)Tuberoinfundibular pathway.
What is the result of blocking the Mesocortical pathway?
It is ventral tegmental of the midbrain to the cortex, the result of blocking increase negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
What is the result of blocking the Mesolimbic pathway?
From the central tegmental of midbrain to lambic system, the result of blocking relieves positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
What is the result of blocking the Nigrostriatal pathway?
From the substantia Nigra pars compacta to neostriatum, the result of blocking development Parkinson disease.
what is the result of blocking the Tuberoinfundibular pathway?
From the arcade nucleus of hypothalamus to pituitary and the result of blocking increase release of prolactin from anterior pituitary.
What disorder is thought to arise from reduced norepinephrine activity? And increased norepinephrine activity?
Decrease by depression and increase by anxiety and mania.
What disease is associated with the degeneration of the basal nucleus of Meynert and less CNS acetylcholine?
That decrease acetylcholine formation and develop Alzheimer disease.
What cell looks like fried egg under histologic staining?
Form multinucleated giant cells in the CNS when infected with HIV?
Myelinates multiple CNS axons
Myelinates one PNS axon
Damaged in Guillain-barré syndrome
Damaged in multiple sclerosis
Macrophages of the CNS
Cells of the Blood-Brain Barrier
In which neurological diseases is acetylcholine altered?
Decrease in Alzheimer and Huntington diseases and increase in Parkinson disease.
What is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the CNS? In which diseases are levels altered?
GABA and decrease in Huntington and anxiety.
What are the components of the blood-brain barrier?
Capillary lumen, tight junction, Astrocyte foot processes and basement membrane.